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Would you like to inspect the original subtitles? These are the user uploaded subtitles that are being translated: 1 00:02:25,872 --> 00:02:27,808 Mr. Adams! 2 00:02:29,345 --> 00:02:34,552 Mr. Adams! 3 00:02:34,622 --> 00:02:39,360 There you are. Didn't you hear me call you, Mr. Adams? 4 00:02:39,432 --> 00:02:43,635 You could've shouted down something, saved me climbing up four flights. 5 00:02:43,708 --> 00:02:47,010 A man that likes to talk as much as you do, I'd think... 6 00:02:48,850 --> 00:02:51,879 What do you keep coming up here for, Mr. Adams? 7 00:02:51,956 --> 00:02:54,485 Afraid someone's going to steal our bell? 8 00:02:55,565 --> 00:02:57,501 Well, don't worry. 9 00:02:57,569 --> 00:03:01,064 Been here more than 14 years and ain't been carried off once. 10 00:03:04,348 --> 00:03:07,843 Better get yourself back down to Congress, Mr. Adams. 11 00:03:07,922 --> 00:03:09,893 Getting ready to vote, and they said... 12 00:03:09,960 --> 00:03:11,930 they couldn't settle such an important question... 13 00:03:11,997 --> 00:03:14,365 without Massachusetts being there. 14 00:03:15,839 --> 00:03:18,173 I can just imagine. 15 00:03:22,352 --> 00:03:27,225 All right, what burning issue are we voting on this time? 16 00:03:27,295 --> 00:03:31,234 On whether or not to grant General Washington's request... 17 00:03:31,302 --> 00:03:34,638 that all members of the Rhode Island militia be required... 18 00:03:34,710 --> 00:03:36,977 to wear matching uniforms. 19 00:03:38,217 --> 00:03:40,210 Oh, good God. 20 00:04:17,329 --> 00:04:21,703 I have come to the conclusion that one useless man... 21 00:04:21,771 --> 00:04:24,139 is called a disgrace... 22 00:04:24,209 --> 00:04:28,013 that two are called a law firm... 23 00:04:28,084 --> 00:04:32,582 and that three or more become a Congress. 24 00:04:32,660 --> 00:04:36,155 And by God, I have had this Congress. 25 00:04:36,233 --> 00:04:39,296 For ten years, King George and his parliament... 26 00:04:39,373 --> 00:04:43,780 have gulled, cullied and diddled these colonies with their illegal taxes... 27 00:04:43,848 --> 00:04:48,085 Stamp Acts, Townshend Acts, Sugar Acts, Tea Acts. 28 00:04:48,158 --> 00:04:50,685 And when we dared stand up like men... 29 00:04:50,763 --> 00:04:53,860 they have stopped our trade, seized our ships... 30 00:04:53,935 --> 00:04:56,839 blockaded our ports, burned our towns... 31 00:04:56,908 --> 00:04:59,276 and spilled our blood. 32 00:04:59,346 --> 00:05:04,847 And still this Congress refuses to grant any of my proposals on independence... 33 00:05:04,924 --> 00:05:08,260 even so much as the courtesy of open debate. 34 00:05:08,331 --> 00:05:11,600 Good God, what in the hell are you waiting for? 35 00:05:12,238 --> 00:05:15,575 Sit down, John Sit down, John 36 00:05:15,646 --> 00:05:19,279 - Thomas, for God's sake, listen to me. - For God's sake, John, sit down 37 00:05:19,354 --> 00:05:21,290 - Sit down, John - I've had enough of you. 38 00:05:21,358 --> 00:05:25,297 Sit down, John For God's sake, John, sit down 39 00:05:25,365 --> 00:05:27,301 - Now, listen... - Why not open up a window 40 00:05:27,369 --> 00:05:30,365 - Listen to me and forget the window. - It's 90 degrees 41 00:05:30,442 --> 00:05:32,241 Have mercy, John, please 42 00:05:32,313 --> 00:05:34,647 It's hot as hell in Philadelphia 43 00:05:34,717 --> 00:05:37,211 Someone ought to open up a window 44 00:05:37,289 --> 00:05:39,782 I say vote yes 45 00:05:39,861 --> 00:05:41,694 Vote yes 46 00:05:41,765 --> 00:05:43,963 Vote for independency 47 00:05:44,036 --> 00:05:46,632 Someone ought to open up a window 48 00:05:46,709 --> 00:05:48,906 I say vote yes 49 00:05:48,980 --> 00:05:50,916 Sit down, John 50 00:05:50,984 --> 00:05:52,976 Vote for independency 51 00:05:53,054 --> 00:05:56,549 Someone ought to open up a window 52 00:05:56,628 --> 00:05:59,931 Too many flies Too many flies 53 00:06:00,002 --> 00:06:02,633 But it's hot as hell in Philadelphia 54 00:06:02,707 --> 00:06:06,771 - Are you gonna open up a window - Can't we compromise here 55 00:06:06,848 --> 00:06:08,215 Vote yes 56 00:06:08,285 --> 00:06:10,448 No, too many flies here 57 00:06:10,522 --> 00:06:11,957 Vote yes 58 00:06:12,026 --> 00:06:14,759 Oh, for God's sake, John sit down 59 00:06:14,832 --> 00:06:17,325 Good God. Consider yourselves fortunate... 60 00:06:17,403 --> 00:06:21,673 that you haveJohn Adams to abuse, for no sane man would tolerate it. 61 00:06:21,744 --> 00:06:25,275 John, you're a bore We've heard this before 62 00:06:25,352 --> 00:06:27,755 Now, for God's sake, John sit down 63 00:06:27,824 --> 00:06:29,259 I say vote yes 64 00:06:30,262 --> 00:06:31,287 Vote yes 65 00:06:31,999 --> 00:06:34,196 Vote for independency 66 00:06:34,270 --> 00:06:36,240 Someone ought to open up a window 67 00:06:36,942 --> 00:06:39,037 I say vote yes 68 00:06:39,113 --> 00:06:41,380 Sit down, John 69 00:06:41,452 --> 00:06:43,888 Vote for independency 70 00:06:43,956 --> 00:06:46,484 Will someone shut that man up 71 00:06:46,562 --> 00:06:48,155 Never! 72 00:06:49,233 --> 00:06:51,226 Never! 73 00:06:55,813 --> 00:06:57,942 Dear God. 74 00:06:58,019 --> 00:07:02,585 For one solid year they have been sitting here a whole year... 75 00:07:02,661 --> 00:07:04,893 doing nothing. 76 00:07:04,965 --> 00:07:10,432 I do believe you've laid a curse on North America 77 00:07:10,510 --> 00:07:15,418 A curse that we here now rehearse in Philadelphia 78 00:07:16,488 --> 00:07:18,720 A second flood a simple famine 79 00:07:18,793 --> 00:07:20,763 Plagues of locusts everywhere 80 00:07:20,830 --> 00:07:24,896 Or a cataclysmic earthquake I'd accept with some despair 81 00:07:24,973 --> 00:07:28,605 But no you've sent us Congress 82 00:07:28,679 --> 00:07:32,983 Good God, sir, was that fair 83 00:07:34,792 --> 00:07:39,208 I say this with humility In Philadelphia 84 00:07:40,700 --> 00:07:45,474 We're your responsability in Philadelphia 85 00:07:46,374 --> 00:07:50,660 If you don't want to see us hanging from some far-off British hill 86 00:07:50,860 --> 00:07:54,569 If you don't want the voice of independency forever still 87 00:07:54,769 --> 00:07:58,071 Then God, sir. Get thee to it 88 00:07:58,271 --> 00:08:02,562 for Congress never will 89 00:08:02,762 --> 00:08:05,628 You see, we piddle twiddle and resolve 90 00:08:05,697 --> 00:08:07,633 Not one damn thing do we solve 91 00:08:07,701 --> 00:08:09,728 Piddle, twiddle and resolve 92 00:08:09,805 --> 00:08:11,570 Nothing's ever solved 93 00:08:11,642 --> 00:08:15,377 In foul, fetid, fuming foggy, filthy 94 00:08:15,450 --> 00:08:17,852 Philadelphia 95 00:08:17,921 --> 00:08:20,909 Someone ought to open up a window 96 00:08:21,284 --> 00:08:22,960 Oh, shut up! 97 00:08:24,133 --> 00:08:27,321 I now call Congress attention to the petition of Mr. Melkey O'May 98 00:08:27,521 --> 00:08:30,614 Who claims 20 dollars compensation for his dead mule 99 00:08:30,814 --> 00:08:34,611 It seems the animal was employed transporting luggage in the service of Congress 100 00:08:34,811 --> 00:08:37,994 The question then would appear to be one of the case 101 00:08:38,194 --> 00:08:40,021 or if the mule expired 102 00:08:40,221 --> 00:08:44,019 not by her carry but after being unlooked 103 00:08:44,219 --> 00:08:48,023 then clearly the beast drop dead on its own time. 104 00:08:48,223 --> 00:08:50,192 Oh, good God. 105 00:08:51,575 --> 00:08:56,123 They may sit here for years and years in Philadelphia 106 00:08:56,323 --> 00:09:02,250 These indecisive grenadiers of Philadelphia. 107 00:09:02,450 --> 00:09:07,463 They can't agree on what is right or wrong or what is good or bad 108 00:09:07,663 --> 00:09:11,185 I'm convinced the only purpose these congress ever had 109 00:09:11,385 --> 00:09:14,517 Was to gather here specifically 110 00:09:14,717 --> 00:09:18,528 to drive John Adams mad. 111 00:09:18,728 --> 00:09:21,280 You see, we piddle twiddle and resolve 112 00:09:21,609 --> 00:09:23,320 Not one damn thing do we solve 113 00:09:23,520 --> 00:09:25,037 Piddle, twiddle and resolve 114 00:09:25,237 --> 00:09:26,982 Nothing's ever solved 115 00:09:27,182 --> 00:09:30,438 In foul, fetid, fuming foggy, filthy 116 00:09:30,638 --> 00:09:32,830 - Philadelphia. - John, John 117 00:09:32,903 --> 00:09:38,004 Is that you carrying on, John 118 00:09:38,080 --> 00:09:42,613 Oh, Abigail, Abigail, I have such a desire to knock heads together. 119 00:09:42,689 --> 00:09:45,216 Then why in heaven's name do you stay there? 120 00:09:45,294 --> 00:09:48,756 Come home to Boston, John. It's only 300 miles. 121 00:09:48,835 --> 00:09:51,431 If you left tonight, you could be here in only eight days. 122 00:09:51,506 --> 00:09:53,442 How can I do that, Abigail? 123 00:09:53,510 --> 00:09:57,041 I'm no further along now than I was when I first came here. 124 00:09:57,118 --> 00:09:59,316 I know, my dearest. I know. 125 00:09:59,390 --> 00:10:02,190 But that's because you make everything so complicated. 126 00:10:02,261 --> 00:10:04,197 It's all quite simple, really. 127 00:10:04,265 --> 00:10:07,362 Just tell the Congress to declare 128 00:10:07,438 --> 00:10:11,038 Independency 129 00:10:11,113 --> 00:10:13,310 Then sign your name get out of there 130 00:10:13,384 --> 00:10:16,982 And hurry home to me 131 00:10:17,058 --> 00:10:19,494 Our children all have dysentery 132 00:10:19,563 --> 00:10:21,897 Little Tom keeps turning blue 133 00:10:21,968 --> 00:10:26,103 Little Abby has the measles and I'm coming down with flu 134 00:10:26,177 --> 00:10:29,343 They say we may get smallpox 135 00:10:29,416 --> 00:10:32,148 Madam, what else is new? 136 00:10:35,294 --> 00:10:37,322 Abigail, in my last letter, I wrote you... 137 00:10:37,399 --> 00:10:42,000 that the king had collected 12,000 German mercenaries to send against us. 138 00:10:42,075 --> 00:10:46,573 I asked you to organize the ladies to make saltpeter for gunpowder. 139 00:10:46,650 --> 00:10:49,588 - Now, have you done as I asked? - No, John, I have not. 140 00:10:49,656 --> 00:10:51,216 Well, why have you not? 141 00:10:51,293 --> 00:10:54,561 Because you neglected to tell us how saltpeter is made. 142 00:10:54,633 --> 00:10:58,471 By treating sodium nitrate with potassium chloride, of course. 143 00:10:58,541 --> 00:11:01,104 - Oh, yes, of course. - Will it be done, then? 144 00:11:01,180 --> 00:11:04,083 John, I'm afraid we have a more urgent problem. 145 00:11:04,152 --> 00:11:05,747 More urgent, madam? 146 00:11:05,823 --> 00:11:12,166 There's one thing every woman's missed in Massachusetts Bay 147 00:11:12,235 --> 00:11:14,900 Don't smirk at me you egotist 148 00:11:14,974 --> 00:11:18,743 Pay heed to what I say 149 00:11:18,815 --> 00:11:23,189 We've gone from Framingham to Boston and we cannot find a pin 150 00:11:23,992 --> 00:11:27,830 ''Don't you know there's a war on" says the tradesman with a grin 151 00:11:27,900 --> 00:11:32,273 Well, we will not make saltpeter 152 00:11:32,342 --> 00:11:36,750 Until you send us pins 153 00:11:36,818 --> 00:11:39,015 Pins, madam? Saltpeter. 154 00:11:39,089 --> 00:11:44,530 - Pins. - Saltpeter. 155 00:11:44,600 --> 00:11:47,164 - Pins. Pins. Pins. - 'Peter. 'Peter. 'Peter. 156 00:11:52,450 --> 00:11:54,386 Done, madam, done. 157 00:11:54,454 --> 00:11:57,118 Done, John. 158 00:11:57,192 --> 00:12:00,723 - Hurry home, John. - As soon as I'm able. 159 00:12:00,799 --> 00:12:02,735 Don't stop writing. It's all I have. 160 00:12:02,804 --> 00:12:05,001 Every day, my dearest friend. 161 00:12:08,315 --> 00:12:13,418 Till then 162 00:12:13,492 --> 00:12:16,659 I am 163 00:12:16,732 --> 00:12:20,136 As I ever was 164 00:12:20,206 --> 00:12:24,840 And ever shall be 165 00:12:24,914 --> 00:12:37,197 Yours 166 00:12:37,273 --> 00:12:40,507 Saltpeter 167 00:12:40,579 --> 00:12:44,350 John 168 00:12:44,421 --> 00:12:46,014 Pins 169 00:12:47,594 --> 00:12:52,729 Abigail 170 00:12:52,804 --> 00:12:55,331 For God's sake, John 171 00:12:55,409 --> 00:12:57,345 Sit down 172 00:13:11,943 --> 00:13:13,502 Franklin! 173 00:13:15,817 --> 00:13:17,252 Franklin! 174 00:13:18,923 --> 00:13:20,859 Where in hell are you? 175 00:13:23,398 --> 00:13:28,068 I see you hiding behind that tree. It won't do you any good. 176 00:13:29,211 --> 00:13:32,046 Damn it, this is no time for playing games. 177 00:13:33,653 --> 00:13:37,057 Franklin, I have been looking everywhere for you. 178 00:13:37,126 --> 00:13:39,255 Where in God's name have you been? 179 00:13:39,330 --> 00:13:42,360 Right here, John, being preserved for posterity. 180 00:13:42,437 --> 00:13:44,737 Do you like it? 181 00:13:48,081 --> 00:13:51,110 - It stinks. - As ever, the soul of tact. 182 00:13:51,187 --> 00:13:55,322 - Well, the man's no Botticelli. - And the subject's no Venus. 183 00:13:55,397 --> 00:13:57,629 Where were you last night when I needed you? 184 00:13:57,702 --> 00:13:59,637 You should have heard what I suffered in there. 185 00:13:59,705 --> 00:14:02,973 I heard, all right, along with the rest of Philadelphia. 186 00:14:03,045 --> 00:14:04,980 Lord, your voice is piercing, John. 187 00:14:05,048 --> 00:14:08,078 Well, I wish to heaven my arguments were. 188 00:14:08,156 --> 00:14:11,527 My God, Franklin, when are they going to make up their minds? 189 00:14:11,596 --> 00:14:13,622 With one hand they can raise an army 190 00:14:13,700 --> 00:14:17,662 dispatch one of their own to lead it and cheer the news from Bunker's Hill... 191 00:14:17,741 --> 00:14:20,611 and with the other, they wave the olive branch... 192 00:14:20,680 --> 00:14:23,653 begging the king for a happy and permanent reconciliation. 193 00:14:23,720 --> 00:14:26,384 Fat George has declared us in rebellion. 194 00:14:26,460 --> 00:14:29,397 - Why in bloody hell can't they? - John, really. 195 00:14:29,465 --> 00:14:31,526 You talk as if independence were the rule. 196 00:14:31,602 --> 00:14:33,538 It's never been done before. 197 00:14:33,606 --> 00:14:36,704 No colony has ever broken from the parent stem in the history of the world. 198 00:14:36,780 --> 00:14:39,718 Damn it, Franklin, you make us sound treasonous. 199 00:14:39,786 --> 00:14:43,624 Do I? Treason, eh? 200 00:14:43,694 --> 00:14:46,221 "Treason is a charge invented by winners... 201 00:14:46,298 --> 00:14:48,234 as an excuse for hanging the losers." 202 00:14:48,302 --> 00:14:51,537 I have more to do than stand here listening to you quote yourself. 203 00:14:51,610 --> 00:14:53,876 No, that was a new one. 204 00:14:53,947 --> 00:14:56,213 Damn it, Franklin, we're at war. 205 00:14:56,286 --> 00:14:58,255 To defend ourselves, nothing more. 206 00:14:58,322 --> 00:15:00,657 We expressed our displeasure, the English moved against us... 207 00:15:00,728 --> 00:15:02,664 and we in turn have resisted. 208 00:15:02,732 --> 00:15:05,363 Now our fellow congressmen want to effect a reconciliation... 209 00:15:05,437 --> 00:15:08,136 - before it becomes a war. - Reconciliation, my ass. 210 00:15:08,210 --> 00:15:10,339 The people want independence. 211 00:15:10,414 --> 00:15:12,350 The people have read Mr. Paine's "Common Sense." 212 00:15:12,418 --> 00:15:16,187 - I doubt very much Congress has. - That's true. 213 00:15:16,258 --> 00:15:18,194 John, why don't you give it up? 214 00:15:18,262 --> 00:15:21,896 Nobody listens to you. You're obnoxious and disliked. 215 00:15:21,971 --> 00:15:25,432 I'm not promoting John Adams. I'm promoting independence. 216 00:15:25,511 --> 00:15:27,777 Evidently, they cannot help connecting the two. 217 00:15:27,848 --> 00:15:30,216 Even your own cousin. 218 00:15:30,287 --> 00:15:32,758 And if Sam Adams can't put up with you, nobody can. 219 00:15:34,329 --> 00:15:36,265 You're getting at something. 220 00:15:37,435 --> 00:15:39,302 How can you tell? 221 00:15:39,372 --> 00:15:43,506 All right, out with it, Franklin. What new intrigue are you cooking up? 222 00:15:43,580 --> 00:15:47,419 Let someone else in Congress propose. 223 00:15:47,489 --> 00:15:48,923 Never! 224 00:15:56,439 --> 00:15:58,705 Why? Who did you have in mind? 225 00:15:58,777 --> 00:16:02,616 I don't know. I really haven't given it much thought. 226 00:16:03,287 --> 00:16:06,122 You sent for me, Benjamin? 227 00:16:06,192 --> 00:16:09,392 - Never. - Hello, Johnny! 228 00:16:09,465 --> 00:16:10,455 Richard. 229 00:16:10,534 --> 00:16:13,404 Johnny and I need some advice. 230 00:16:13,473 --> 00:16:16,878 - If it's mine to give, it's yours. - Thank you, Richard. 231 00:16:16,947 --> 00:16:20,443 The cause that we support has come to a complete standstill. 232 00:16:20,522 --> 00:16:22,458 - Why do you suppose that is? - Simple. 233 00:16:22,526 --> 00:16:25,122 - Johnny here is obnoxious and disliked. - That's true. 234 00:16:25,197 --> 00:16:27,133 What's the solution, I wonder? 235 00:16:29,239 --> 00:16:31,835 Get somebody else in Congress to propose. 236 00:16:31,911 --> 00:16:34,883 Oh, Richard, that's brilliant. Wasn't that brilliant, John? 237 00:16:34,950 --> 00:16:38,047 - Brilliant. - The question remains who can it be. 238 00:16:38,123 --> 00:16:40,218 The man that we need must belong to a delegation... 239 00:16:40,294 --> 00:16:42,264 publicly committed to support independence. 240 00:16:42,331 --> 00:16:44,929 At the present time, only Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Delaware... 241 00:16:45,004 --> 00:16:48,204 - have declared our way. - And Virginia. Don't forget Virginia. 242 00:16:48,277 --> 00:16:50,213 Richard, I haven't. How could I? 243 00:16:50,281 --> 00:16:53,150 But strictly speaking, while Virginia's views on independence are well known... 244 00:16:53,220 --> 00:16:56,215 your legislature in Williamsburg has never formerly authorized... 245 00:16:56,292 --> 00:16:59,163 its delegation here in Congress to support the cause. 246 00:16:59,233 --> 00:17:02,866 If we could think of a Virginian with enough influence to go down there... 247 00:17:02,940 --> 00:17:07,779 - and persuade the House of Burgesses... - I've thought of someone! 248 00:17:07,849 --> 00:17:10,012 - Who? - Me. 249 00:17:10,087 --> 00:17:13,288 - Well, why didn't I think of that? - I'll leave tonight. 250 00:17:13,361 --> 00:17:15,924 Why, hell, I'll leave right now, if you like. 251 00:17:16,000 --> 00:17:18,995 I'll just stop off in Stratford long enough to refresh the missus... 252 00:17:19,072 --> 00:17:21,474 and then straight to the matter. 253 00:17:21,544 --> 00:17:24,448 Yes, sir, I really have to compliment you on your judgment, Johnny. 254 00:17:24,516 --> 00:17:25,951 Whoa, boy. Steady. 255 00:17:26,020 --> 00:17:28,617 You've come to the one colony that can get the job done. 256 00:17:28,692 --> 00:17:32,187 Virginia, the land that gave us our glorious commander-in-chief... 257 00:17:33,134 --> 00:17:34,397 George Washington... 258 00:17:34,469 --> 00:17:37,464 will now give the continent its proposal on independence. 259 00:17:37,542 --> 00:17:41,004 And when Virginia proposes, the South is bound to follow. 260 00:17:41,083 --> 00:17:44,523 And where the South goes, the middle colonies go. 261 00:17:44,591 --> 00:17:46,754 Gentlemen, a salute. 262 00:17:46,828 --> 00:17:50,392 To Virginia, the mother of American independence. 263 00:17:50,468 --> 00:17:53,771 Incredible. We're free and he hasn't even left yet. 264 00:17:53,842 --> 00:17:56,279 What makes you so sure you can do it? 265 00:17:57,650 --> 00:18:01,681 My name is Richard Henry Lee Virginia is my home 266 00:18:01,758 --> 00:18:07,133 My name is Richard Henry Lee Virginia is my home 267 00:18:07,202 --> 00:18:11,644 And may my horses turn to glue if I can't deliver unto you 268 00:18:11,711 --> 00:18:15,947 The resolution on independency 269 00:18:16,020 --> 00:18:18,491 For I am FFV 270 00:18:18,558 --> 00:18:20,186 The first family 271 00:18:20,261 --> 00:18:23,678 in the sovereign colony of Virginia 272 00:18:24,237 --> 00:18:25,900 Yes, the FFV 273 00:18:26,708 --> 00:18:27,994 The oldest family 274 00:18:28,578 --> 00:18:32,060 In the oldest colony in America 275 00:18:32,260 --> 00:18:34,452 And may the British burn my land 276 00:18:34,524 --> 00:18:36,495 If I can't deliver to your hand 277 00:18:36,563 --> 00:18:40,093 A resolution on independency 278 00:18:40,169 --> 00:18:43,141 You see, it's here a Lee there a Lee 279 00:18:43,208 --> 00:18:45,178 And everywhere a Lee, Lee 280 00:18:45,246 --> 00:18:46,236 - Social - Lee 281 00:18:46,315 --> 00:18:47,248 - Political - Lee 282 00:18:47,317 --> 00:18:49,310 - Financial, natural - Lee, Lee 283 00:18:49,388 --> 00:18:51,324 - Internal, external - Lee, Lee 284 00:18:51,392 --> 00:18:52,325 - Fraternal - Lee 285 00:18:52,394 --> 00:18:53,657 - Eternal - Lee 286 00:18:53,730 --> 00:18:55,632 The FFV 287 00:18:55,701 --> 00:18:57,432 The first family 288 00:18:57,504 --> 00:19:01,204 In the sovereign colony of Virginia 289 00:19:01,278 --> 00:19:03,545 And may my wife refuse my bed 290 00:19:03,617 --> 00:19:05,587 If I can't deliver as I said 291 00:19:05,654 --> 00:19:09,355 A resolution on independency 292 00:19:09,428 --> 00:19:12,297 Spoken modest-Lee. God help him. 293 00:19:12,368 --> 00:19:14,360 Oh, he will, John. He will. 294 00:19:14,438 --> 00:19:17,900 They say that God in heaven is everybody's God 295 00:19:17,979 --> 00:19:20,449 - Amen - I'll admit that God in heaven 296 00:19:20,517 --> 00:19:24,287 Is everybody's God 297 00:19:24,358 --> 00:19:26,760 But I tell you, John with pride 298 00:19:26,829 --> 00:19:30,165 God leans a little on the side of the Lees 299 00:19:30,236 --> 00:19:32,834 The Lees of old Virginia 300 00:19:32,909 --> 00:19:35,311 You see, it's here a Lee there a Lee 301 00:19:35,380 --> 00:19:37,646 And everywhere a Lee, a Lee 302 00:19:37,718 --> 00:19:40,918 Here a Lee, there a Lee and everywhere a Lee 303 00:19:40,991 --> 00:19:43,792 Look out, there's Arthur Lee Bobby Lee 304 00:19:43,863 --> 00:19:45,993 General Lighthorse Harry Lee 305 00:19:46,069 --> 00:19:47,834 Willie Lee, Jesse Lee 306 00:19:47,906 --> 00:19:49,739 - And Richard H. - That's me. 307 00:19:49,810 --> 00:19:53,579 And may my blood stop running blue 308 00:19:53,650 --> 00:19:58,820 If I can't deliver unto you the resolution on independency 309 00:19:58,893 --> 00:20:02,128 Yes, sir, my God it's here a Lee, there a Lee 310 00:20:02,201 --> 00:20:04,228 Come on, boys! Join in with me! 311 00:20:04,305 --> 00:20:07,004 - Here a Lee, there a Lee - When do you leave? 312 00:20:07,077 --> 00:20:08,340 Immediate-Lee 313 00:20:08,413 --> 00:20:11,283 - Here a Lee, there a Lee - When will you return? 314 00:20:11,352 --> 00:20:12,479 Short-Lee 315 00:20:12,554 --> 00:20:16,325 Here a Lee, there a Lee and I'll come back triumphant-Lee 316 00:20:16,396 --> 00:20:20,734 Here a Lee, there a Lee everywhere a Lee, a Lee 317 00:20:20,805 --> 00:20:23,173 Forward 318 00:20:23,243 --> 00:20:28,846 On 319 00:20:33,946 --> 00:20:38,000 That was the most revolting display a have ever witnessed 320 00:20:38,100 --> 00:20:39,705 They are warm blooded people, Virginians. 321 00:20:39,905 --> 00:20:41,662 Oh, not him Franklin, you 322 00:20:42,162 --> 00:20:44,662 You and your infernal obsession for deviousness 323 00:20:44,862 --> 00:20:47,962 Now if you come straight and ask the man he'd be gone half hour ago 324 00:20:48,162 --> 00:20:49,750 Yes and he would be doing us a favor 325 00:20:50,250 --> 00:20:51,250 Cheer up John 326 00:20:51,450 --> 00:20:53,214 At this very moment our cause is again riding high 327 00:20:53,683 --> 00:20:56,373 Sittin' straight in the saddle and full gallop for Virginia 328 00:20:56,673 --> 00:21:00,433 And a women are serene, 329 00:21:00,834 --> 00:21:03,418 - Oh, good God - Full-bosomed 330 00:21:04,645 --> 00:21:07,054 full-bosomed 331 00:21:07,378 --> 00:21:11,662 Full-bosomed Benji Everyone a queen 332 00:21:11,906 --> 00:21:14,312 Why they are Lees, dammit 333 00:21:14,412 --> 00:21:16,396 Lees of old Virginia 334 00:21:16,596 --> 00:21:18,243 Yes, sir! By God. It's here a Lee 335 00:21:18,443 --> 00:21:19,412 There a Lee 336 00:21:19,612 --> 00:21:21,531 Come on, John snuffle that old Lee 337 00:21:21,731 --> 00:21:25,328 Here a Lee, there a Lee everywhere a Lee, a Lee 338 00:21:25,528 --> 00:21:29,046 Here a Lee, there a Lee everywhere a Lee, a Lee 339 00:21:29,246 --> 00:21:31,114 Forward 340 00:21:31,481 --> 00:21:35,714 On 341 00:22:04,185 --> 00:22:06,849 - Excuse me. - Yes? 342 00:22:06,924 --> 00:22:10,728 I'm Dr. Lyman Hall, the new delegate from Georgia. 343 00:22:10,798 --> 00:22:13,929 I'm Andrew McNair, congressional custodian. 344 00:22:14,004 --> 00:22:17,068 If you'll be wanting anything at all, just holler out "McNair"... 345 00:22:17,145 --> 00:22:21,245 as all the others do and there won't be too long to wait. 346 00:22:21,320 --> 00:22:24,156 Where does the Georgia delegation belong? 347 00:22:24,225 --> 00:22:28,187 They mill about over in that corner near the two Carolinas. 348 00:22:33,979 --> 00:22:36,006 It's after 10:00. 349 00:22:36,083 --> 00:22:38,178 I was told Congress convenes at ten. 350 00:22:38,253 --> 00:22:41,282 Well, they'll be wandering in any time now, sir... 351 00:22:41,360 --> 00:22:43,593 with Old Grape 'n Guts leading the pack. 352 00:22:43,665 --> 00:22:45,567 - Old who? - McNair! 353 00:22:45,635 --> 00:22:47,228 Grape 'N Guts. 354 00:22:47,305 --> 00:22:49,070 'Nair! 355 00:22:50,144 --> 00:22:51,635 Fetch me a rum. 356 00:22:51,713 --> 00:22:55,778 Mr. Hopkins, you'll be pleased to meet Dr. Lyman Hall. 357 00:22:57,159 --> 00:22:59,094 I don't need a doctor, damn it. 358 00:22:59,162 --> 00:23:01,325 New delegate from Georgia. 359 00:23:01,401 --> 00:23:04,304 Well, why didn't you say so? 360 00:23:04,372 --> 00:23:08,278 I'm Stephen Hopkins, old delegate from Rhode Island. 361 00:23:08,347 --> 00:23:12,584 - McNair, fetch two rums. - I fear it's a little early in the day. 362 00:23:14,927 --> 00:23:16,590 Nonsense. 363 00:23:16,664 --> 00:23:20,695 It's a medicinal fact that rum gets a man's heart started in the morning. 364 00:23:22,341 --> 00:23:24,607 I'm surprised you didn't know that. 365 00:23:24,679 --> 00:23:27,481 Speaking as the oldest man in the Congress, I can tell you right now... 366 00:23:27,553 --> 00:23:30,354 Ben Franklin is older by almost a year. 367 00:23:30,425 --> 00:23:31,859 Rum! 368 00:23:37,138 --> 00:23:38,572 Tell me, Doctor. 369 00:23:38,641 --> 00:23:41,808 Where does Georgia stand on the question of independence? 370 00:23:41,882 --> 00:23:44,318 With South Carolina, of course. 371 00:23:45,489 --> 00:23:46,821 Needy, good morning. 372 00:23:46,891 --> 00:23:50,331 Neddy, come over here and shake the hand of Dr. Lyman Hall of Georgia. 373 00:23:50,398 --> 00:23:53,633 Dr. Hall, this here is Edward Rutledge from... 374 00:23:53,706 --> 00:23:55,642 whichever Carolina he says he's from. 375 00:23:55,710 --> 00:23:58,374 - God knows I can't keep 'em straight. - It's a pleasure, Dr. Hall. 376 00:23:58,448 --> 00:24:01,215 - Your servant, Mr. Rutledge. - You've met the long and the short... 377 00:24:01,287 --> 00:24:02,550 of it now, Doctor. 378 00:24:02,623 --> 00:24:05,356 Neddy here is just a lad. He's the youngest of us. 379 00:24:05,428 --> 00:24:08,059 - Except for Ben Franklin. - McNair! 380 00:24:08,134 --> 00:24:09,831 Your rum! 381 00:24:09,905 --> 00:24:12,775 Where did you go for it, man? Jamaica? 382 00:24:13,611 --> 00:24:15,638 Well, now, come along, Dr. Hall. 383 00:24:15,715 --> 00:24:19,177 I know you must be anxious to meet your colleagues from the South. 384 00:24:21,662 --> 00:24:23,689 Doctor, may I present to you Joseph Hewes. 385 00:24:23,766 --> 00:24:26,236 This is Dr. Lyman Hall, the new delegate from Georgia. 386 00:24:26,304 --> 00:24:29,640 - An honor and a pleasure, gentlemen. - Where do you stand on independence? 387 00:24:29,711 --> 00:24:32,375 I'm here without instructions, Mr. Hewes... 388 00:24:32,449 --> 00:24:35,980 able to vote my own personal convictions. 389 00:24:36,058 --> 00:24:38,824 And they are? 390 00:24:41,568 --> 00:24:43,298 Personal. 391 00:24:44,139 --> 00:24:46,166 Now, Dr. Hall... 392 00:24:46,244 --> 00:24:49,114 the Deep South speaks with one voice. 393 00:24:49,183 --> 00:24:50,516 It's traditional. 394 00:24:50,586 --> 00:24:53,854 Even more, it is historical. 395 00:24:53,926 --> 00:24:56,454 Enter Delaware. 396 00:24:58,368 --> 00:25:02,536 Speak plain, Rutledge. You know I can't follow a word of your damn French. 397 00:25:02,609 --> 00:25:04,546 It's Latin, Colonel McKean... 398 00:25:04,614 --> 00:25:08,281 a tribute to the eternal peace and harmony of the Delaware delegation. 399 00:25:08,355 --> 00:25:11,293 What are you saying, man? You know perfectly well... 400 00:25:11,361 --> 00:25:14,561 that neither Rodney nor I can stand the sight of this louse. 401 00:25:14,634 --> 00:25:16,763 - Now, Thomas... - Gentlemen, please. 402 00:25:16,838 --> 00:25:20,973 This is Dr. Lyman Hall of Georgia. 403 00:25:21,048 --> 00:25:23,041 - Caesar Rodney. - An honor, sir. 404 00:25:23,118 --> 00:25:26,750 - George Read and Colonel Thomas McKean. - Your servant. 405 00:25:26,825 --> 00:25:27,918 Dr. Hall. 406 00:25:27,994 --> 00:25:31,399 I wonder if I might speak to you for a moment in private. 407 00:25:31,468 --> 00:25:32,630 By all means. 408 00:25:35,877 --> 00:25:38,575 - McNair! - I'm coming! I'm coming! 409 00:25:38,649 --> 00:25:41,177 Help me. I'm stuck. 410 00:25:44,093 --> 00:25:46,030 Tell me, sir. 411 00:25:46,098 --> 00:25:50,870 Would you be a doctor of medicine or theology? 412 00:25:50,941 --> 00:25:53,605 Both, Mr. Rodney. Which one can be of service? 413 00:25:53,679 --> 00:25:56,344 By all means, the physician first. 414 00:25:56,418 --> 00:25:59,686 Then we shall see about the other. 415 00:25:59,758 --> 00:26:02,253 I shall call at your convenience. 416 00:26:11,314 --> 00:26:14,151 I trust, Caesar, when you're through converting... 417 00:26:14,221 --> 00:26:16,157 the poor fellow to independency... 418 00:26:16,225 --> 00:26:18,752 that you'll give the opposition a fair crack at him. 419 00:26:20,299 --> 00:26:22,600 You're too late, John. 420 00:26:22,671 --> 00:26:25,301 Once I get them, they're got. 421 00:26:25,376 --> 00:26:30,251 Dr. Lyman Hall of Georgia, Mr. John Dickinson of Pennsylvania. 422 00:26:30,320 --> 00:26:32,916 - An honor, sir. - Your servant, sir. 423 00:26:32,991 --> 00:26:35,428 Tell me, Doctor. 424 00:26:35,497 --> 00:26:38,594 - Where do you stand on the question of... - Independence? 425 00:26:38,670 --> 00:26:40,036 Treason. 426 00:26:42,879 --> 00:26:44,279 I've no stomach for it. 427 00:26:44,348 --> 00:26:47,149 Then be careful not to dine with John Adams. 428 00:26:47,221 --> 00:26:49,157 Between the fish and the souffle... 429 00:26:49,225 --> 00:26:51,627 You'll find yourself hanging from an English rope. 430 00:26:51,696 --> 00:26:53,130 Your servant, sir. 431 00:26:56,372 --> 00:27:00,905 Judge Wilson, forgive me, but how can anyone see you... 432 00:27:00,982 --> 00:27:06,083 if you insist on standing in Mr. Dickinson's shadow? 433 00:27:06,158 --> 00:27:10,120 James Wilson, also of Pennsylvania. 434 00:27:10,199 --> 00:27:12,432 Sir. 435 00:27:12,505 --> 00:27:14,941 An honor, sir. 436 00:27:15,010 --> 00:27:16,946 Good morning. Good morning. 437 00:27:19,885 --> 00:27:22,014 Good morning, ladies. Good morning. 438 00:27:22,090 --> 00:27:24,994 Steady, steady. 439 00:27:25,063 --> 00:27:27,796 Make gangway, sir. Make gangway! 440 00:27:27,869 --> 00:27:30,339 Good morning, Mr. Wilson. Good morning. 441 00:27:30,407 --> 00:27:33,709 Watch where you're going. Over there. 442 00:27:33,781 --> 00:27:39,248 McNair, get me out of this thing. Watch out for my foot. 443 00:27:39,326 --> 00:27:42,229 - Good morning, all. - Morning, Ben. 444 00:27:42,298 --> 00:27:45,828 Here you are. Two coppers a piece. Now, straight back to jail with you. 445 00:27:45,905 --> 00:27:47,966 - Good morning, Stephen. - Hi, Benjamin. 446 00:27:53,854 --> 00:27:57,350 What are you staring at? Haven't you ever seen a great man before? 447 00:27:57,428 --> 00:27:59,728 Good Lord, sir, do you have the honor to be Dr. Franklin? 448 00:27:59,799 --> 00:28:03,864 Yes, I have that honor. Unfortunately, the gout accompanies that honor. 449 00:28:03,941 --> 00:28:05,432 Been living too high again, pappy? 450 00:28:05,510 --> 00:28:09,451 Oh, Stephen, I only wish King George felt like my big toe all over. 451 00:28:11,123 --> 00:28:14,926 McNair! Fetch a pillow and two more rums. 452 00:28:14,996 --> 00:28:17,763 Franklin, where's that idiot Lee? Is he back yet? I don't see him. 453 00:28:17,835 --> 00:28:20,808 Softly, John. Your voice is hurting my foot. 454 00:28:20,876 --> 00:28:24,645 One more day. That's how long I'll remain silent, not a minute longer. 455 00:28:24,716 --> 00:28:27,313 That strutting popinjay was so damn sure of himself... 456 00:28:27,388 --> 00:28:29,585 he's had time to bring back a dozen proposals by now. 457 00:28:29,659 --> 00:28:33,690 Tell me, James. How do you explain the strange, monumental quietude... 458 00:28:33,767 --> 00:28:36,706 that Congress has been treated to these past 30 days? 459 00:28:36,774 --> 00:28:41,010 Has the ill wind of independence finally blown itself out? 460 00:28:41,083 --> 00:28:43,019 Well, if you ask me... 461 00:28:43,087 --> 00:28:46,890 For myself, I must confess that a month free from New England noise... 462 00:28:46,960 --> 00:28:48,988 is more therapeutic than a month in the country. 463 00:28:49,065 --> 00:28:51,798 - Don't you agree, James? - Well, I feel... 464 00:28:51,871 --> 00:28:53,807 Mr. Adams, pray look for your voice, sir. 465 00:28:53,875 --> 00:28:58,907 It cannot be far, and God knows we need the entertainment in this Congress. 466 00:29:02,992 --> 00:29:06,159 Congratulations. You just made your greatest contribution to independence. 467 00:29:06,233 --> 00:29:08,898 - You kept your flap shut. - One more day, Franklin... 468 00:29:08,972 --> 00:29:11,272 then I shall do the proposing. 469 00:29:12,813 --> 00:29:16,445 Gentlemen, the usual morning festivities concluded... 470 00:29:16,520 --> 00:29:19,254 I will now call Congress to order. 471 00:29:19,326 --> 00:29:21,261 Mr. Thomson... 472 00:29:24,169 --> 00:29:28,132 Second Continental Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, is now in session. 473 00:29:28,210 --> 00:29:31,581 Seven, June, 1776, the 380th meeting. 474 00:29:31,651 --> 00:29:33,587 SweetJesus! 475 00:29:35,125 --> 00:29:38,393 The HonorableJohn Hancock of Massachusetts Bay, president. 476 00:29:40,735 --> 00:29:43,331 Thank you, Mr. Thomson. Mr. McNair... 477 00:29:43,407 --> 00:29:47,007 the stores of rum and other drinking spirits are hereby closed... 478 00:29:47,082 --> 00:29:50,452 to the colony of Rhode Island for a period of three days. 479 00:29:50,522 --> 00:29:53,688 - Yes, sir. - Johnny, you can't do that. 480 00:29:53,761 --> 00:29:57,165 Sit down, Mr. Hopkins. You've abused the privilege. 481 00:29:59,741 --> 00:30:01,734 The chair would like to take this opportunity... 482 00:30:01,812 --> 00:30:04,612 to welcome Dr. Lyman Hall of Georgia to this Congress... 483 00:30:04,683 --> 00:30:06,983 and hopes he will make the best of it. 484 00:30:10,027 --> 00:30:12,555 My God, it's hot. 485 00:30:12,633 --> 00:30:15,070 The secretary will read the roll. 486 00:30:15,138 --> 00:30:17,665 All members present with the following exceptions: 487 00:30:17,744 --> 00:30:20,715 Mr. Paine, Mr. Gerry, Mr. Samuel Adams of Massachusetts... 488 00:30:20,782 --> 00:30:25,190 Mr. Morton of Pennsylvania, Mr. Wythe and Mr. Richard Henry Lee of Virginia... 489 00:30:25,258 --> 00:30:28,128 and the entire delegation of New Jersey. 490 00:30:28,197 --> 00:30:32,137 I'm concerned over the continual absence of one-thirteenth of this Congress. 491 00:30:32,205 --> 00:30:33,571 Where is New Jersey? 492 00:30:33,642 --> 00:30:37,843 Somewhere between New York and Pennsylvania. 493 00:30:40,322 --> 00:30:42,725 Thank you very much. 494 00:30:42,794 --> 00:30:46,427 Dr. Franklin, have you heard anything? Your son resides there. 495 00:30:46,501 --> 00:30:47,935 Son, sir? What son? 496 00:30:48,706 --> 00:30:51,541 The royal governor of New Jersey, sir. 497 00:30:51,610 --> 00:30:54,275 As that title might suggest, sir... 498 00:30:54,350 --> 00:30:56,685 we are not in touch at the present time. 499 00:30:56,755 --> 00:30:58,657 Yes. 500 00:30:58,726 --> 00:31:01,425 Well... Now for the weather report... 501 00:31:01,498 --> 00:31:03,434 Mr. Jefferson of Virginia. 502 00:31:05,773 --> 00:31:09,075 - Mr. Jefferson! - Present, sir. 503 00:31:09,146 --> 00:31:11,208 May we hear about the weather? 504 00:31:11,284 --> 00:31:13,880 As if it weren't speaking for itself. 505 00:31:15,493 --> 00:31:18,089 Eighty-seven degrees of temperature... 506 00:31:18,164 --> 00:31:21,831 30-point-aught-six inches of mercury. 507 00:31:21,905 --> 00:31:24,001 Wind... 508 00:31:24,077 --> 00:31:26,673 from the southwest for the rest of the day. 509 00:31:26,748 --> 00:31:30,620 And tonight... tonight I'm leaving for home. 510 00:31:30,689 --> 00:31:33,182 - On business? - Family business. 511 00:31:33,262 --> 00:31:36,131 Give her a flourish for me, young feller. 512 00:32:03,222 --> 00:32:05,385 From the commander, army of the United Colonies. 513 00:32:05,860 --> 00:32:09,027 To New York, dispatch number 1,137. 514 00:32:09,100 --> 00:32:11,502 Ah, sweet Jesus! 515 00:32:11,572 --> 00:32:14,441 To the Honorable Congress, John Hancock, president. "Dear sir... 516 00:32:14,511 --> 00:32:17,142 it is with grave apprehension that I have learned this day... 517 00:32:17,216 --> 00:32:19,243 of the sailing from Halifax, Nova Scotia... 518 00:32:19,320 --> 00:32:21,314 of a considerable force of British troops... 519 00:32:21,392 --> 00:32:23,589 in the company of foreign mercenaries and under the command... 520 00:32:23,663 --> 00:32:25,599 of General Sir William Howe. 521 00:32:25,667 --> 00:32:27,372 There can be no doubt that their destination is New York... 522 00:32:27,809 --> 00:32:30,906 for to take and hold this city and the Hudson Valley beyond... 523 00:32:30,982 --> 00:32:33,886 would serve to separate New England from the rest of the colonies... 524 00:32:33,954 --> 00:32:36,859 permitting both sections to be crushed in turn. 525 00:32:36,928 --> 00:32:39,763 Sadly, I see no way of stopping them at the present time... 526 00:32:39,833 --> 00:32:41,928 as my army is absolutely falling apart. 527 00:32:42,004 --> 00:32:44,237 My military chest is totally exhausted. 528 00:32:44,309 --> 00:32:47,475 My commissary general has strained his credit to the last. 529 00:32:47,549 --> 00:32:51,284 My quartermaster has no food, no arms, no ammunition... 530 00:32:51,356 --> 00:32:54,226 and my troops are in a state of near mutiny. 531 00:32:54,296 --> 00:32:59,068 I pray God some relief arrives before the armada, but fear it will not. 532 00:32:59,139 --> 00:33:01,074 Your obedient... 533 00:33:02,212 --> 00:33:03,647 G. Washington." 534 00:33:04,517 --> 00:33:06,885 - Mr. President! - Colonel McKean. 535 00:33:06,955 --> 00:33:12,091 Surely we have managed to promote the gloomiest man on this continent... 536 00:33:12,165 --> 00:33:14,101 to the head of our troops. 537 00:33:14,169 --> 00:33:18,508 Those dispatches are the most depressing accumulation... 538 00:33:18,578 --> 00:33:24,215 of disaster, doom and despair in the entire annals of military history. 539 00:33:24,289 --> 00:33:26,486 Colonel McKean, please! 540 00:33:26,560 --> 00:33:30,261 - What? - It's too hot. 541 00:33:31,271 --> 00:33:33,605 Well, I suppose so. 542 00:33:33,675 --> 00:33:38,139 General Washington will continue wording his dispatches as he sees fit. 543 00:33:38,217 --> 00:33:40,210 And I'm sure we all pray... 544 00:33:40,288 --> 00:33:44,388 he finds happier thoughts to convey in the near future. 545 00:33:45,465 --> 00:33:47,401 Mr. Thomson, are there any resolutions? 546 00:33:47,469 --> 00:33:49,962 Dr. Josiah Barlett of New Hampshire. 547 00:33:51,344 --> 00:33:54,612 "Resolved: That for the duration of the present hostilities... 548 00:33:54,684 --> 00:33:57,747 the Congress discourage every type of extravagance and dissipation... 549 00:33:57,823 --> 00:34:00,693 elaborate funerals and other expensive diversions... 550 00:34:00,762 --> 00:34:03,461 especially all horse racing, gambling... 551 00:34:03,535 --> 00:34:06,371 and other forms of sinful activity... 552 00:34:06,441 --> 00:34:07,909 Fire wagon! 553 00:34:25,111 --> 00:34:28,050 - Where's the fire? Can anybody tell? - Looks like the Pepperton house. 554 00:34:28,118 --> 00:34:31,113 - Couldn't be. It's brand-new. - It might be the city tavern. 555 00:34:31,190 --> 00:34:33,126 Bite your tongue, man. 556 00:34:42,313 --> 00:34:45,284 Benjy, I'm back! I'm back, Johnny! 557 00:34:51,264 --> 00:34:54,236 - Lee, is it done? - First things first. 558 00:34:54,303 --> 00:34:58,677 Tom, your little bride wants to know: "When is he coming home?" 559 00:34:58,746 --> 00:35:01,410 - I leave tonight. - Never mind that, man. Is it done? 560 00:35:01,485 --> 00:35:04,354 Done? Why, certain-Lee. 561 00:35:04,423 --> 00:35:08,227 Mr. President, I have returned from Virginia with the following resolution. 562 00:35:08,298 --> 00:35:11,897 "Resolved: That these united colonies are, and of a right ought to be... 563 00:35:11,972 --> 00:35:13,498 free and independent states... 564 00:35:13,576 --> 00:35:16,138 that they are absolved from allegiance to the British crown... 565 00:35:16,214 --> 00:35:19,482 and that all political connection between them and Great Britain is... 566 00:35:19,554 --> 00:35:23,722 and ought to be totally dissolved." 567 00:35:23,797 --> 00:35:26,324 Mr. President, I second the proposal. 568 00:35:26,401 --> 00:35:28,394 The resolution has been proposed and seconded. 569 00:35:28,472 --> 00:35:30,465 The chair will now entertain debate. 570 00:35:32,012 --> 00:35:33,572 - Mr. Dickinson. - Mr. President. 571 00:35:33,649 --> 00:35:36,245 Pennsylvania moves, as always... 572 00:35:36,320 --> 00:35:40,489 that the question of independence be postponed indefinitely. 573 00:35:40,563 --> 00:35:42,294 I second the motion. 574 00:35:42,367 --> 00:35:44,701 Judge Wilson... 575 00:35:44,771 --> 00:35:47,538 in your eagerness to be loved, you seem to have forgotten... 576 00:35:47,610 --> 00:35:50,480 that Pennsylvania cannot second its own motion. 577 00:35:51,886 --> 00:35:53,822 Delaware seconds. 578 00:35:53,890 --> 00:35:55,951 You would, you lousy wart. 579 00:35:56,695 --> 00:35:59,758 The motion to postpone has been moved and seconded. 580 00:35:59,834 --> 00:36:01,235 Mr. Thomson. 581 00:36:02,540 --> 00:36:04,476 On the motion to postpone indefinitely... 582 00:36:04,544 --> 00:36:07,483 the resolution on independency or proceed with the debate... 583 00:36:07,551 --> 00:36:10,990 all those in favor of debate say "yea," all those for postponement say "nay." 584 00:36:11,058 --> 00:36:15,123 - New Hampshire. - New Hampshire favors debate. Yea. 585 00:36:16,868 --> 00:36:19,773 New Hampshire says yea. Massachusetts? 586 00:36:19,842 --> 00:36:25,376 Massachusetts, having borne the brunt of the king's tyranny... 587 00:36:25,453 --> 00:36:27,047 Yes, I said tyranny. 588 00:36:27,123 --> 00:36:30,789 Massachusetts now and for all time says yea. 589 00:36:31,732 --> 00:36:34,170 Massachusetts says yea. 590 00:36:34,238 --> 00:36:35,729 Rhode Island? 591 00:36:36,643 --> 00:36:38,168 Mr. Hopkins. 592 00:36:39,014 --> 00:36:43,352 - Where's Rhode Island? - Out visiting the necessary. 593 00:36:43,422 --> 00:36:46,987 After what Rhode Island's consumed, I can't say I'm surprised. 594 00:36:47,063 --> 00:36:49,000 We'll come back to him, Mr. Thomson. 595 00:36:49,068 --> 00:36:51,037 Rhode Island passes. 596 00:36:55,246 --> 00:36:56,715 Connecticut. 597 00:36:58,720 --> 00:37:01,623 While Connecticut has, till now... 598 00:37:01,693 --> 00:37:04,392 been against this proposal... 599 00:37:04,465 --> 00:37:06,833 our legislature has instructed me that in the event... 600 00:37:06,903 --> 00:37:10,103 it is introduced by any colony outside of New England... 601 00:37:10,176 --> 00:37:12,545 we could not any longer withhold our support. 602 00:37:12,614 --> 00:37:14,777 - Connecticut says yea. - Hear! Hear! 603 00:37:14,852 --> 00:37:17,619 Connecticut says yea. New York. 604 00:37:18,626 --> 00:37:21,097 New York abstains, courteously. 605 00:37:21,165 --> 00:37:23,795 - New York abstains. - Courteously. 606 00:37:26,242 --> 00:37:29,772 - New Jersey. - Absent, Mr. Secretary. 607 00:37:30,852 --> 00:37:32,788 New Jersey's absent. Pennsylvania. 608 00:37:33,791 --> 00:37:37,127 Pennsylvania, for the 24th time, says nay. 609 00:37:37,197 --> 00:37:39,633 Pennsylvania says nay. Delaware. 610 00:37:40,604 --> 00:37:45,171 Delaware, as ever for independence, says yea. 611 00:37:45,247 --> 00:37:47,946 Delaware says yea. Maryland. 612 00:37:48,019 --> 00:37:51,891 Maryland would welcome independence if it were given... 613 00:37:51,960 --> 00:37:55,330 but is highly skeptical that it can be taken. 614 00:37:55,400 --> 00:37:57,563 Maryland says nay. 615 00:37:58,874 --> 00:38:01,071 Maryland says nay. Virginia. 616 00:38:01,145 --> 00:38:03,878 Virginia, the first colony, says yea. 617 00:38:06,990 --> 00:38:09,517 Virginia says yea. North Carolina. 618 00:38:09,595 --> 00:38:14,129 North Carolina respectfully yields to South Carolina. 619 00:38:14,206 --> 00:38:17,200 - South Carolina. - Mr. President... 620 00:38:17,278 --> 00:38:20,808 although we of South Carolina have never seriously considered... 621 00:38:20,885 --> 00:38:22,980 the question of independence... 622 00:38:23,056 --> 00:38:27,327 when a gentleman proposes it, attention must be paid. 623 00:38:28,634 --> 00:38:32,129 However, we in the Deep South... 624 00:38:32,208 --> 00:38:34,303 unlike our friends in New England... 625 00:38:34,379 --> 00:38:38,911 have no cause for impatience at the present time. 626 00:38:38,988 --> 00:38:42,621 If at some future date it becomes the wish of all our sister colonies... 627 00:38:42,695 --> 00:38:46,226 to effect a separation, we will not stand in the way. 628 00:38:46,303 --> 00:38:48,239 But for the time being... 629 00:38:48,307 --> 00:38:52,337 South Carolina will wait and watch. 630 00:38:52,415 --> 00:38:54,784 The vote is nay. 631 00:38:56,858 --> 00:38:59,921 - North Carolina... - Says nay. Yes, Mr. Hewes. I know. 632 00:39:02,201 --> 00:39:03,669 Georgia. 633 00:39:07,144 --> 00:39:08,580 Georgia. 634 00:39:09,850 --> 00:39:14,689 Mr. President, Georgia seems to be split right down the middle on this issue. 635 00:39:14,760 --> 00:39:18,028 The people are against it, and I'm for it. 636 00:39:20,237 --> 00:39:23,506 However, I'm afraid I'm not quite certain... 637 00:39:23,578 --> 00:39:27,575 whether representing the people means relying on their judgment or on my own. 638 00:39:27,653 --> 00:39:29,816 In all fairness, until I can figure that out... 639 00:39:29,890 --> 00:39:32,258 I'd better lean a little on their side. 640 00:39:32,328 --> 00:39:33,762 Georgia says nay. 641 00:39:38,174 --> 00:39:40,667 Georgia says nay. 642 00:39:40,746 --> 00:39:42,682 Rhode Island. 643 00:39:44,119 --> 00:39:47,182 Second call, Rhode Island! 644 00:39:47,258 --> 00:39:48,852 Rhode Island! 645 00:39:48,928 --> 00:39:51,627 I'm coming! I'm coming! 646 00:39:51,701 --> 00:39:54,035 Hold your damn horses. 647 00:39:54,106 --> 00:39:57,943 - We're waiting on you, Mr. Hopkins. - Well, it won't kill you. 648 00:39:58,013 --> 00:40:01,544 You'd think the Congress would have its own privy. 649 00:40:01,621 --> 00:40:03,556 All right, where does she stand? 650 00:40:03,624 --> 00:40:07,156 Five for debate, five for postponement, one abstention and one absence. 651 00:40:07,232 --> 00:40:09,259 So it's up to me, huh? 652 00:40:09,336 --> 00:40:11,272 Well, I'll tell ya. 653 00:40:11,340 --> 00:40:15,277 In all my years I never seen, heard nor smelled an issue... 654 00:40:15,499 --> 00:40:18,369 that was so dangerous it couldn't be talked about. 655 00:40:18,439 --> 00:40:22,379 Hell, yes. I'm for debating anything. Rhode Island says yea. 656 00:40:24,451 --> 00:40:27,423 McNair, get Mr. Hopkins a rum. 657 00:40:27,490 --> 00:40:30,929 Get him the whole damn barrel if he wants. 658 00:40:31,932 --> 00:40:34,370 The chair now declares this Congress a Committee of the Whole... 659 00:40:34,438 --> 00:40:37,842 for the purpose of debating Virginia's resolution on independence. 660 00:40:37,911 --> 00:40:39,847 Mr. Dickinson. 661 00:40:41,051 --> 00:40:46,426 Well, now, you've got your way at last, Mr. Adams. 662 00:40:46,495 --> 00:40:49,525 The matter may now be discussed. 663 00:40:49,602 --> 00:40:52,631 I confess I'm almost relieved. 664 00:40:52,708 --> 00:40:56,272 There's a question I've been fairly itching to ask you. 665 00:40:58,753 --> 00:41:01,885 - Why? - Why what, Mr. Dickinson? 666 00:41:01,961 --> 00:41:05,229 Well, why independence, Mr. Adams? 667 00:41:05,300 --> 00:41:06,632 For the obvious reason... 668 00:41:06,703 --> 00:41:11,110 that our continued association with Great Britain has grown intolerable. 669 00:41:11,178 --> 00:41:14,640 Well, to whom, Mr. Adams? To you? 670 00:41:14,719 --> 00:41:17,817 Well, then I suggest you sever your ties immediately. 671 00:41:17,892 --> 00:41:20,089 But please be kind enough... 672 00:41:20,163 --> 00:41:23,693 to leave the rest of us where we are. 673 00:41:23,770 --> 00:41:25,797 For myself, I have no objection at all... 674 00:41:25,874 --> 00:41:28,505 to being part of the greatest empire on earth... 675 00:41:28,580 --> 00:41:31,644 to enjoying its protection and sharing its benefits. 676 00:41:31,720 --> 00:41:33,986 Benefits? 677 00:41:34,058 --> 00:41:36,221 What benefits? 678 00:41:36,296 --> 00:41:39,530 Crippling taxes? Cruel repressions? 679 00:41:39,602 --> 00:41:41,538 Abolished rights? 680 00:41:42,808 --> 00:41:47,375 Is that all England means to you, sir? 681 00:41:49,088 --> 00:41:52,356 Is that all the pride and affection you can muster... 682 00:41:52,428 --> 00:41:54,830 for the nation that bore you... 683 00:41:54,900 --> 00:41:58,499 for the noblest, most civilized nation on the face of this planet? 684 00:41:58,574 --> 00:42:02,446 What, would you have us forsake Hastings and Magna Carta... 685 00:42:02,515 --> 00:42:05,954 Strongbow and Lionheart, Drake and Marlborough... 686 00:42:06,022 --> 00:42:07,958 Tudors, Stuarts and Plantagenets? 687 00:42:08,026 --> 00:42:09,859 For what, sir? 688 00:42:09,930 --> 00:42:11,867 Tell me. For what? 689 00:42:15,174 --> 00:42:17,109 For you? 690 00:42:19,816 --> 00:42:23,984 Some men are patriots, like General Washington... 691 00:42:24,058 --> 00:42:26,359 and some are anarchists, like Mr. Paine. 692 00:42:26,430 --> 00:42:29,266 Some even are internationalists, like Dr. Franklin. 693 00:42:29,336 --> 00:42:31,863 But you, sir... 694 00:42:33,344 --> 00:42:37,409 you are merely an agitator, disturbing the peace... 695 00:42:37,485 --> 00:42:41,722 creating disorder, endangering the public welfare, and for what? 696 00:42:41,795 --> 00:42:44,129 Your petty little personal complaints: 697 00:42:44,199 --> 00:42:47,501 "Your taxes are too high." 698 00:42:47,572 --> 00:42:51,945 Well, sir, so are mine. 699 00:42:54,152 --> 00:42:56,919 Come, come, Mr. Adams. 700 00:42:56,991 --> 00:43:00,589 If you have grievances, and I'm sure you have... 701 00:43:00,665 --> 00:43:04,366 our present system must provide a gentler means of redressing them... 702 00:43:04,439 --> 00:43:06,966 short of revolution. 703 00:43:07,044 --> 00:43:09,242 Yes, that's what he wants. 704 00:43:09,316 --> 00:43:11,411 Nothing less will satisfy him. 705 00:43:11,488 --> 00:43:14,654 Violence, rebellion, treason. 706 00:43:16,898 --> 00:43:19,995 Now, Mr. Adams... 707 00:43:20,071 --> 00:43:23,238 are these the acts of Englishmen? 708 00:43:23,311 --> 00:43:25,838 Not Englishmen, Dickinson. Americans. 709 00:43:25,916 --> 00:43:27,886 No, sir. Englishmen! 710 00:43:27,953 --> 00:43:32,053 Please, Mr. Dickinson, must you start banging? How is a man to sleep? 711 00:43:33,564 --> 00:43:37,027 Forgive me, Dr. Franklin, but must you start speaking? 712 00:43:37,106 --> 00:43:39,041 How is a man to stay awake? 713 00:43:40,646 --> 00:43:42,843 We'll promise to be quiet, sir. 714 00:43:42,917 --> 00:43:46,117 I'm sure everyone prefers that you remain asleep. 715 00:43:46,189 --> 00:43:48,625 If I'm to hear myself called an Englishman, sir... 716 00:43:48,694 --> 00:43:50,665 I assure you I'd prefer I'd remained asleep. 717 00:43:50,732 --> 00:43:54,467 Oh, now, what's so terrible about being called an Englishman? 718 00:43:54,540 --> 00:43:57,410 - The English don't seem to mind. - Nor would I... 719 00:43:57,479 --> 00:43:59,881 were I given the full rights of an Englishman. 720 00:43:59,951 --> 00:44:03,721 But to call me one without those rights is like calling an ox a bull. 721 00:44:03,792 --> 00:44:06,059 He's thankful for the honor, but he'd much rather have restored... 722 00:44:06,130 --> 00:44:07,564 what's rightfully his. 723 00:44:14,212 --> 00:44:17,013 When did you first notice they were missing, sir? 724 00:44:22,496 --> 00:44:25,366 Fortunately, the people of these colonies... 725 00:44:25,435 --> 00:44:28,339 maintain a higher regard for their mother country. 726 00:44:28,408 --> 00:44:31,938 Higher, certainly, than she feels for them. 727 00:44:32,015 --> 00:44:33,952 Never was such a valuable possession... 728 00:44:34,020 --> 00:44:36,183 so stupidly and so recklessly managed... 729 00:44:36,257 --> 00:44:39,127 than this entire continent by the British crown. 730 00:44:39,196 --> 00:44:42,430 Our industry discouraged, our resources pillaged. 731 00:44:43,772 --> 00:44:46,140 Worst of all, our very character stifled. 732 00:44:47,347 --> 00:44:49,544 We've spawned a new race here, Mr. Dickinson... 733 00:44:49,618 --> 00:44:54,788 rougher, simpler, more violent, more enterprising, less refined. 734 00:44:55,363 --> 00:44:59,189 We're a new nationality. We require a new nation. 735 00:45:02,577 --> 00:45:04,513 Well... 736 00:45:04,581 --> 00:45:08,351 that may be your opinion, Dr. Franklin, but... 737 00:45:08,423 --> 00:45:12,761 as I said, the people feel quite differently. 738 00:45:12,831 --> 00:45:16,202 Now, what do you know about the people, Dickinson? 739 00:45:16,272 --> 00:45:19,733 You don't speak for the people. You represent only yourself. 740 00:45:19,812 --> 00:45:22,045 And that precious status quo... 741 00:45:22,117 --> 00:45:25,317 you keep imploring the people to preserve for their own good... 742 00:45:25,390 --> 00:45:30,025 is nothing more than the eternal preservation of your own property. 743 00:45:31,135 --> 00:45:33,868 Mr. Adams, you have an annoying talent... 744 00:45:33,941 --> 00:45:39,509 for making such delightful words as "property" sound quite distasteful. 745 00:45:39,585 --> 00:45:43,081 In heaven's name, what's wrong with property? 746 00:45:43,159 --> 00:45:46,427 Perhaps you've forgotten that many of us first came to these shores... 747 00:45:46,500 --> 00:45:48,970 in order to secure rights to property... 748 00:45:49,037 --> 00:45:53,375 and that we hold these rights no less dear than the rights you speak of. 749 00:45:53,446 --> 00:45:57,854 Yes. So safe, so fat, so comfortable in Pennsylvania. 750 00:45:57,922 --> 00:46:00,450 And what is this independence of yours... 751 00:46:00,528 --> 00:46:03,090 except the private grievance of Massachusetts? 752 00:46:03,166 --> 00:46:06,263 Why is it always Boston that breaks the king's peace? 753 00:46:06,338 --> 00:46:10,370 My dear Congress, you must not adopt this evil measure. 754 00:46:10,448 --> 00:46:12,611 It is the work of the devil. 755 00:46:12,685 --> 00:46:17,593 Leave it where it belongs... in New England. 756 00:46:17,662 --> 00:46:21,192 Brother Dickinson, New England has fought the devil more than 100 years. 757 00:46:21,268 --> 00:46:23,534 And as of now, Brother Sherman... 758 00:46:23,606 --> 00:46:26,408 the devil has been winning hands down. 759 00:46:27,148 --> 00:46:30,348 Why, at this very moment, he's sitting right here in this Congress. 760 00:46:30,421 --> 00:46:34,384 Don't let him deceive you. This proposal is entirely his doing. 761 00:46:34,462 --> 00:46:36,397 Oh, it may bear Virginia's name... 762 00:46:36,466 --> 00:46:40,304 but it reeks of Adams, Adams and more Adams. 763 00:46:40,374 --> 00:46:42,640 Look at him. Ready to lead this continent... 764 00:46:42,712 --> 00:46:45,183 down the fiery path of total destruction. 765 00:46:45,251 --> 00:46:49,658 Oh, good God! Why can't you acknowledge what already exists? 766 00:46:49,726 --> 00:46:53,188 It has been more than a year since Concord and Lexington. 767 00:46:53,267 --> 00:46:55,704 Damn it, man, we're at war right now! 768 00:46:55,772 --> 00:46:59,108 You may be at war. You... Boston and John Adams. 769 00:46:59,178 --> 00:47:01,774 But you will never speak for Pennsylvania. 770 00:47:01,850 --> 00:47:04,047 - Nor for Delaware. - Mr. Read... 771 00:47:04,121 --> 00:47:07,493 you represent only one-third of Delaware. 772 00:47:07,563 --> 00:47:09,624 The sensible third, Mr. Rodney. 773 00:47:09,700 --> 00:47:12,866 Sit down, or I'll knock you down. 774 00:47:13,507 --> 00:47:17,345 Sit down, all three of you! McNair, do something about that damn dog! 775 00:47:17,415 --> 00:47:20,478 - Fetch me a rum. - Get the dog first. 776 00:47:20,554 --> 00:47:22,491 I only got two hands. 777 00:47:27,535 --> 00:47:30,302 Christ, it's hot! 778 00:47:40,328 --> 00:47:43,664 Oh. Please do go on, gentlemen. 779 00:47:43,735 --> 00:47:46,103 You're making the only breeze in Philadelphia. 780 00:47:47,441 --> 00:47:53,216 Mr. Adams, perhaps you could clear up something for me. 781 00:47:53,287 --> 00:47:55,553 After we have achieved independence... 782 00:47:55,625 --> 00:47:58,357 who do you propose would govern in South Carolina? 783 00:48:00,234 --> 00:48:01,703 The people, of course. 784 00:48:01,771 --> 00:48:05,108 Which people, sir? The people of South Carolina... 785 00:48:05,178 --> 00:48:07,580 or the people of Massachusetts? 786 00:48:07,649 --> 00:48:12,318 Admit it, Neddy. You're against independence now and you always will be. 787 00:48:12,392 --> 00:48:13,917 Aye. 788 00:48:15,532 --> 00:48:19,336 Gentlemen, you refuse to understand us. 789 00:48:19,406 --> 00:48:22,902 We desire independence. Yes. 790 00:48:22,980 --> 00:48:27,044 For South Carolina. That is our country. 791 00:48:27,121 --> 00:48:30,321 And as such, we don't wish to belong to anyone. 792 00:48:30,395 --> 00:48:33,299 Not to England and not to you. 793 00:48:34,136 --> 00:48:36,835 We intend to have one nation, Rutledge. 794 00:48:36,908 --> 00:48:40,108 A nation of sovereign states, Mr. Adams. 795 00:48:40,181 --> 00:48:43,381 United for our mutual protection, but... 796 00:48:43,454 --> 00:48:45,925 separate for our individual pursuits. 797 00:48:45,993 --> 00:48:49,090 Now, that is what we have understood it to be... 798 00:48:49,166 --> 00:48:52,468 and that is what we will support. 799 00:48:53,876 --> 00:48:56,403 As soon as everyone supports it. 800 00:48:59,821 --> 00:49:02,816 Well, there you are, Mr. Adams. 801 00:49:02,894 --> 00:49:05,421 You must see that we need time. 802 00:49:05,499 --> 00:49:10,942 Time to make certain who we are and where we stand in regard to one another. 803 00:49:11,010 --> 00:49:14,848 For if we do not determine the nature of the beast before we set it free... 804 00:49:14,918 --> 00:49:17,583 it will end by consuming us all. 805 00:49:17,657 --> 00:49:20,720 For once in your life, Wilson... 806 00:49:20,796 --> 00:49:22,732 take a chance. 807 00:49:24,102 --> 00:49:27,040 I say the time is now. 808 00:49:27,108 --> 00:49:29,102 It may never come again. 809 00:49:29,180 --> 00:49:31,412 Your clock is fast, Mr. Adams. 810 00:49:31,484 --> 00:49:33,477 I say we're not yet ripe for independence. 811 00:49:33,555 --> 00:49:37,153 Not ripe? Hell, we're rotting for want of it. 812 00:49:37,229 --> 00:49:41,431 Gentlemen, please, what in God's name is the infernal hurry? 813 00:49:41,503 --> 00:49:43,497 Why must this question be settled now? 814 00:49:43,575 --> 00:49:45,841 What's wrong with now, Mr. Chase? 815 00:49:45,914 --> 00:49:48,316 General Washington is in the field. 816 00:49:48,385 --> 00:49:52,416 If he's defeated as it now appears, we'll be inviting the hangman. 817 00:49:52,493 --> 00:49:56,730 But if, by some miracle, he should actually win... 818 00:49:56,802 --> 00:49:59,500 we can then declare anything we damn please. 819 00:49:59,574 --> 00:50:02,375 The sentiments of North Carolina precisely. 820 00:50:02,948 --> 00:50:05,043 Has it ever occurred to either of you... 821 00:50:05,119 --> 00:50:07,487 that an army needs something to fight for... 822 00:50:07,557 --> 00:50:09,493 in order to win? 823 00:50:09,562 --> 00:50:13,092 A purpose? A goal? A flag of its own? 824 00:50:13,168 --> 00:50:15,571 Mr. Adams... 825 00:50:15,641 --> 00:50:18,738 how can a nation of only two million souls... 826 00:50:18,813 --> 00:50:21,079 stand up to an empire of ten million? 827 00:50:21,151 --> 00:50:25,024 Think of it. Ten million. How do we compensate for that shortage? 828 00:50:25,093 --> 00:50:27,859 It's simple, Mr. Chase. Increase and multiply. 829 00:50:27,931 --> 00:50:30,528 How's that? 830 00:50:30,604 --> 00:50:33,576 We will more than compensate with spirit. 831 00:50:33,643 --> 00:50:36,637 I tell you that there is a spirit out there among the people... 832 00:50:36,716 --> 00:50:38,777 that is sadly lacking in this Congress. 833 00:50:38,854 --> 00:50:42,020 Yes, of course. Now it's spirit. 834 00:50:42,094 --> 00:50:44,029 Why didn't I think of that? 835 00:50:44,097 --> 00:50:48,436 No army, no navy, no arms, no ammunition... 836 00:50:48,506 --> 00:50:52,675 no treasury, no friends. 837 00:50:52,749 --> 00:50:56,848 But bless our soul, spirit. 838 00:50:56,924 --> 00:50:59,326 Mr. Lee, Mr. Hopkins... 839 00:50:59,395 --> 00:51:01,888 Mr. Rodney, Colonel McKean... 840 00:51:01,966 --> 00:51:04,460 Dr. Franklin. 841 00:51:04,538 --> 00:51:09,606 Why have you joined this incendiary little man... 842 00:51:09,683 --> 00:51:12,951 this Boston radical... 843 00:51:13,022 --> 00:51:15,458 this agitator... 844 00:51:15,527 --> 00:51:18,020 this demagogue... 845 00:51:18,098 --> 00:51:19,863 this madman? 846 00:51:19,935 --> 00:51:22,965 Are you calling me a madman, you... 847 00:51:23,042 --> 00:51:25,308 you fribble! 848 00:51:26,449 --> 00:51:30,014 You and your Pennsylvania proprietors. 849 00:51:30,090 --> 00:51:33,027 Oh, you cool, considerate men. 850 00:51:33,096 --> 00:51:36,729 You hang to the rear on every issue so that if we should go under... 851 00:51:36,804 --> 00:51:38,740 you'll still remain afloat. 852 00:51:38,808 --> 00:51:43,476 - Are you calling me a coward? - Yes. Coward. 853 00:51:43,550 --> 00:51:45,919 - Madman! - Landlord! 854 00:51:45,988 --> 00:51:47,684 Lawyer! 855 00:51:53,771 --> 00:51:55,741 Stop it! Stop it! 856 00:51:57,477 --> 00:52:00,780 This is the Congress. Stop it, I say! 857 00:52:00,852 --> 00:52:03,847 - The enemy's out there. - No, Mr. Rodney, the enemy is here. 858 00:52:03,924 --> 00:52:06,828 No. I say he's out there. 859 00:52:06,897 --> 00:52:12,135 England. England closing in, cutting off our air. 860 00:52:12,207 --> 00:52:14,143 There's no time! 861 00:52:17,252 --> 00:52:19,722 No air. 862 00:52:19,789 --> 00:52:21,725 Dr. Hall. 863 00:52:25,434 --> 00:52:29,772 - Colonel McKean. - Aye. It's the cancer. 864 00:52:29,843 --> 00:52:32,610 But he should go home. 865 00:52:32,683 --> 00:52:35,985 A man should die in his own bed. 866 00:52:37,492 --> 00:52:41,090 - John. John Adams. - I'm here, Caesar. 867 00:52:44,406 --> 00:52:46,536 I leave you... 868 00:52:46,611 --> 00:52:48,877 a divided Delaware. 869 00:52:50,151 --> 00:52:53,920 - Forgive me. - I'll take you home, Caesar. 870 00:53:19,075 --> 00:53:21,068 I'll be back within the week. 871 00:53:28,328 --> 00:53:33,031 Mr. President, South Carolina calls the question. 872 00:53:34,440 --> 00:53:38,402 - What's that, Mr. Rutledge? - I said, Mr. President... 873 00:53:38,480 --> 00:53:42,387 South Carolina desires to end the debate... 874 00:53:44,060 --> 00:53:46,428 and calls the question of independence. 875 00:53:46,497 --> 00:53:48,433 - Delaware seconds. - Thank you. 876 00:53:50,204 --> 00:53:52,937 Gentlemen, please! 877 00:53:53,010 --> 00:53:56,006 The question has been called and seconded. 878 00:53:57,086 --> 00:53:59,283 The secretary will record the vote. 879 00:53:59,356 --> 00:54:01,417 Franklin, do something. Think. 880 00:54:01,494 --> 00:54:03,623 I'm thinking, but nothing's coming. 881 00:54:03,698 --> 00:54:05,827 All those in favor of the resolution on independence... 882 00:54:05,902 --> 00:54:08,601 as proposed by the colony of Virginia, signify by saying... 883 00:54:08,675 --> 00:54:10,703 Mr. Secretary... 884 00:54:10,780 --> 00:54:12,773 would you please read the resolution again? 885 00:54:12,851 --> 00:54:13,978 What? 886 00:54:15,388 --> 00:54:18,258 - I'd forgotten it. - Now, please. 887 00:54:20,665 --> 00:54:23,228 "Resolved: These united colonies are... 888 00:54:23,304 --> 00:54:26,003 and of a right ought to be free and independent..." 889 00:54:32,556 --> 00:54:35,926 Excuse me. Is this the Continental Congress? 890 00:54:35,996 --> 00:54:39,437 Well, yes, I can see that it must be. 891 00:54:39,504 --> 00:54:42,373 It's all right. We found it. 892 00:54:42,442 --> 00:54:45,039 We've been looking for you everywhere, you see. 893 00:54:45,115 --> 00:54:47,711 Someone told us that you might be at Carpenters' Hall... 894 00:54:47,786 --> 00:54:50,519 and someone else suggested Library Hall. 895 00:54:50,592 --> 00:54:53,224 - So finally we asked a constable... - Excuse me, sir, but... 896 00:54:53,299 --> 00:54:56,533 if you don't mind, the Congress is about to decide... 897 00:54:56,605 --> 00:54:58,541 the question of American independence. 898 00:54:59,911 --> 00:55:02,347 How splendid. That means we're not too late. 899 00:55:02,416 --> 00:55:04,352 These gentlemen are Mr. Francis Hopkinson... 900 00:55:04,420 --> 00:55:08,361 Mr. Richard Stockton, and I'm the Reverend John Witherspoon. 901 00:55:11,668 --> 00:55:13,968 We're the new delegates from New Jersey. 902 00:55:14,039 --> 00:55:16,772 New Jersey? 903 00:55:19,718 --> 00:55:25,219 Dr. Franklin, I regret that I must be the bearer of unhappy tidings, sir... 904 00:55:25,296 --> 00:55:27,892 but your son, the royal governor of New Jersey... 905 00:55:27,967 --> 00:55:29,903 has been taken prisoner... 906 00:55:29,971 --> 00:55:34,242 and has been moved under guard to the colony of Connecticut for safekeeping. 907 00:55:34,314 --> 00:55:37,582 - Is he unharmed, sir? - When last I heard, he was. Yes, sir. 908 00:55:37,654 --> 00:55:41,321 Then why the long face? I hear Connecticut is an excellent location. 909 00:55:41,395 --> 00:55:44,765 Tell me. Why did they arrest the little bastard? 910 00:55:46,872 --> 00:55:48,432 Our... 911 00:55:48,510 --> 00:55:52,244 New Jersey legislature has recalled the old delegation to this Congress... 912 00:55:52,317 --> 00:55:55,448 and has sent a new one. 913 00:55:55,523 --> 00:55:57,993 Quickly, man, where do you stand on independence? 914 00:55:58,061 --> 00:56:01,227 Well, haven't I made that clear? Well, I suppose I haven't. 915 00:56:01,301 --> 00:56:03,237 But that's the reason for the change. 916 00:56:03,305 --> 00:56:06,608 We've been instructed to vote for independence. 917 00:56:06,679 --> 00:56:11,586 Massachusetts is now ready for the vote on independence... 918 00:56:11,655 --> 00:56:15,994 and reminds the chair of its privilege to decide all votes that are deadlocked. 919 00:56:16,064 --> 00:56:18,467 I won't forget, Mr. Adams. 920 00:56:19,638 --> 00:56:23,577 The chair takes this opportunity to welcome the New Jersey delegation... 921 00:56:23,646 --> 00:56:27,141 and appoints the Reverend Witherspoon congressional chaplain... 922 00:56:27,220 --> 00:56:31,389 - if he will accept the post. - With much pleasure, sir. 923 00:56:32,631 --> 00:56:38,131 Very well. Mr. Thomson, you may now proceed with the vote on independence. 924 00:56:38,208 --> 00:56:40,975 All in favor of the resolution on independence... 925 00:56:41,047 --> 00:56:44,350 - as proposed by the colony of Virginia... - Mr. President. 926 00:56:45,690 --> 00:56:50,462 Pennsylvania moves that any vote in favor of independence... 927 00:56:51,569 --> 00:56:53,505 must be unanimous. 928 00:56:54,374 --> 00:56:56,971 - What? - I second the motion. 929 00:56:57,046 --> 00:57:00,508 - Judge Wilson! - Oh, my God. 930 00:57:00,587 --> 00:57:02,819 Delaware seconds, Mr. President. 931 00:57:02,891 --> 00:57:05,385 No vote has ever had to be unanimous, Dickinson, and you know it. 932 00:57:05,464 --> 00:57:07,832 - Yes, but this one must be. - On what grounds? 933 00:57:07,901 --> 00:57:11,773 That no colony be torn from its mother country without its own consent. 934 00:57:11,843 --> 00:57:13,210 Hear! Hear! 935 00:57:13,279 --> 00:57:17,049 But it will never be unanimous, damn it. 936 00:57:17,120 --> 00:57:19,886 If you say so, Mr. Adams. 937 00:57:21,462 --> 00:57:24,798 It has been moved and seconded that the vote on independence... 938 00:57:24,869 --> 00:57:27,102 must be unanimous in order to carry. 939 00:57:27,174 --> 00:57:29,737 All those in favor, signify by saying yea. 940 00:57:29,813 --> 00:57:30,746 Yea! 941 00:57:30,815 --> 00:57:35,279 One, two, three, four, five, six. 942 00:57:35,357 --> 00:57:38,955 - Six colonies say yea. Against? - Nay! 943 00:57:39,030 --> 00:57:43,267 One, two, three, four, five, six. 944 00:57:43,339 --> 00:57:46,243 Six colonies say nay. 945 00:57:46,312 --> 00:57:51,254 Mr. Secretary, New York abstains, courteously. 946 00:57:51,322 --> 00:57:55,661 Mr. Morris, why does New York constantly abstain? 947 00:57:55,731 --> 00:57:58,396 Why does New York simply stay in New York? 948 00:58:00,106 --> 00:58:02,269 Very well. The vote is tied. 949 00:58:03,513 --> 00:58:06,953 The principles of independence have no greater advocate in Congress... 950 00:58:07,020 --> 00:58:09,184 than its president... 951 00:58:09,259 --> 00:58:12,595 and that is why I must join those who vote for unanimity. 952 00:58:12,665 --> 00:58:15,796 Good God, John! What are you doing? You've sunk us. 953 00:58:15,871 --> 00:58:20,039 Now, hear me out. Don't you see that any colony who opposes independence... 954 00:58:20,113 --> 00:58:22,049 will be forced to fight on the side of England? 955 00:58:22,117 --> 00:58:24,850 That we'll be setting brother against brother... 956 00:58:24,923 --> 00:58:29,331 that our new nation will carry as its emblem the mark of Cain. 957 00:58:29,399 --> 00:58:31,335 I can see no other way. 958 00:58:31,403 --> 00:58:36,037 Either we all walk together or together we must stay where we are. 959 00:58:37,682 --> 00:58:41,679 - The man's from Massachusetts. - Very well. Proceed, Mr. Thomson. 960 00:58:41,757 --> 00:58:44,126 A unanimous vote being necessary to carry... 961 00:58:44,195 --> 00:58:46,665 if any be opposed to the resolution on independence... 962 00:58:46,733 --> 00:58:50,001 - as proposed by the colony of Virginia... - Mr. President. 963 00:58:50,073 --> 00:58:52,841 Oh, for heaven's sake, let me get through it once. 964 00:58:52,913 --> 00:58:54,849 Mr. President. 965 00:58:55,919 --> 00:58:58,481 - I move for a postponement. - Postponement? 966 00:58:58,557 --> 00:59:00,493 I wish you the same luck I had with it. 967 00:59:00,561 --> 00:59:02,497 Mr. Adams is right. We need a postponement. 968 00:59:02,565 --> 00:59:05,936 - On what grounds? - On what grounds? 969 00:59:06,006 --> 00:59:10,470 Mr. President, how can this Congress vote on independence... 970 00:59:10,548 --> 00:59:15,650 without a written declaration of some sort defining it? 971 00:59:16,827 --> 00:59:18,922 What sort of declaration? 972 00:59:20,134 --> 00:59:24,302 Well, you know. Listing the reasons for the separation... 973 00:59:24,375 --> 00:59:27,780 our purposes, goals, so forth, so on. 974 00:59:27,850 --> 00:59:30,252 - Ditto, Ditto. - Ditto, ditto, et cetera, et cetera. 975 00:59:30,321 --> 00:59:31,789 We know those, don't we? 976 00:59:33,962 --> 00:59:36,559 Oh, yes, good God, we know them. 977 00:59:36,634 --> 00:59:39,606 But what about the rest of the world? 978 00:59:39,673 --> 00:59:42,041 Certainly we require the assistance... 979 00:59:42,111 --> 00:59:45,606 of a powerful nation such as France or Spain... 980 00:59:45,684 --> 00:59:50,457 and such a written declaration would be consistent with European delicacy. 981 00:59:51,531 --> 00:59:55,061 Come now, Mr. Adams. You'll have to do better than that. 982 00:59:55,137 --> 00:59:58,473 Answer straight. What would be its purpose? 983 00:59:58,544 --> 01:00:01,345 Yes. Well... 984 01:00:03,956 --> 01:00:08,920 To place before mankind the common sense of the subject... 985 01:00:08,998 --> 01:00:12,232 in terms so plain and firm... 986 01:00:12,305 --> 01:00:15,106 as to command their assent. 987 01:00:22,159 --> 01:00:25,427 Mr. Jefferson, are you seriously suggesting... 988 01:00:25,498 --> 01:00:28,402 that we publish a paper declaring to all the world... 989 01:00:28,471 --> 01:00:32,742 that an illegal rebellion is, in reality, a legal one? 990 01:00:32,814 --> 01:00:35,649 Oh, Mr. Dickinson, I'm surprised at you. 991 01:00:35,719 --> 01:00:38,486 You should know the rebellion is always legal in the first person... 992 01:00:38,558 --> 01:00:40,083 such as our rebellion. 993 01:00:40,161 --> 01:00:43,429 It's only in the third person... "their" rebellion... that it is illegal. 994 01:00:45,673 --> 01:00:49,612 Mr. President, I second the motion to postpone the vote on independence... 995 01:00:49,680 --> 01:00:53,518 for a period of time sufficient for the writing of a declaration. 996 01:00:53,588 --> 01:00:55,956 It has been moved and seconded. Mr. Thomson. 997 01:00:56,026 --> 01:00:59,660 All those in favor of the motion to postpone, signify by saying yea. 998 01:00:59,734 --> 01:01:01,134 Yea! 999 01:01:01,203 --> 01:01:05,439 One, two, three, four, five, six. 1000 01:01:05,512 --> 01:01:08,484 - Six colonies say yea. Against? - Nay! 1001 01:01:08,551 --> 01:01:13,153 One, two, three, four, five, six. 1002 01:01:13,228 --> 01:01:15,197 Six colonies say nay. 1003 01:01:17,503 --> 01:01:21,499 Mr. Secretary, New York abstains, courteously. 1004 01:01:25,988 --> 01:01:30,326 Mr. Morris, what in hell goes on in New York? 1005 01:01:30,396 --> 01:01:34,096 I'm sorry, Mr. President, but the simple fact is that... 1006 01:01:34,169 --> 01:01:39,578 our legislature has never sent us explicit instructions on anything. 1007 01:01:39,646 --> 01:01:42,118 Never? 1008 01:01:42,186 --> 01:01:44,122 That's impossible. 1009 01:01:44,926 --> 01:01:47,192 Mr. President, have you ever been present... 1010 01:01:47,264 --> 01:01:50,293 at a meeting of the New York legislature? 1011 01:01:50,370 --> 01:01:52,840 They speak very fast and very loud... 1012 01:01:52,908 --> 01:01:55,380 and nobody listens to anybody else... 1013 01:01:55,447 --> 01:01:58,817 with the result that nothing ever gets done. 1014 01:02:00,891 --> 01:02:02,952 I beg the Congress's pardon. 1015 01:02:05,400 --> 01:02:07,964 My sympathies, Mr. Morris. 1016 01:02:08,040 --> 01:02:11,809 The vote again being tied, the chair decides in favor of postponement. 1017 01:02:11,880 --> 01:02:13,645 So ruled. 1018 01:02:13,717 --> 01:02:15,914 A committee will now be formed to manage the declaration. 1019 01:02:15,988 --> 01:02:18,858 Said document to be written, debated, approved by the beginning ofJuly... 1020 01:02:18,927 --> 01:02:21,832 some three weeks hence, at which time... 1021 01:02:21,901 --> 01:02:25,840 Virginia's resolution on independence will finally be voted. 1022 01:02:25,908 --> 01:02:28,471 Is that clear? Very well. 1023 01:02:28,547 --> 01:02:32,145 Will the following gentlemen serve on the Declaration Committee: Dr. Franklin? 1024 01:02:32,220 --> 01:02:33,313 Gladly. 1025 01:02:33,389 --> 01:02:35,382 - Mr. John Adams? - Yes. 1026 01:02:35,460 --> 01:02:36,554 Mr. Sherman? 1027 01:02:37,632 --> 01:02:39,397 - Mr. Livingston? - Right. 1028 01:02:39,469 --> 01:02:41,371 And, of course, Mr. Lee. 1029 01:02:41,439 --> 01:02:45,812 Oh, excuse me, but I must be returning to the sovereign colony of Virginia... 1030 01:02:45,881 --> 01:02:48,478 as I have been asked to serve as governor. 1031 01:02:48,553 --> 01:02:52,459 And therefore I must decline, respectful-Lee. 1032 01:02:56,670 --> 01:02:58,902 Very well, Mr. Lee. You're excused. 1033 01:02:58,974 --> 01:03:01,537 I supposed we could leave it a four-man committee. 1034 01:03:01,613 --> 01:03:03,981 Just a moment. This business needs a Virginian. 1035 01:03:04,051 --> 01:03:06,580 Therefore, I propose a replacement... Mr. Thomas Jefferson. 1036 01:03:06,657 --> 01:03:09,720 - No. Mr. Adams... - Very well. Mr. Jefferson will serve. 1037 01:03:09,797 --> 01:03:12,324 - I'm going home, too, to my wife. - Move to adjourn. 1038 01:03:12,401 --> 01:03:13,869 - Wait. - I second. 1039 01:03:13,938 --> 01:03:17,342 Mr. Hancock, I haven't seen her for six months. 1040 01:03:17,411 --> 01:03:19,348 Moved and seconded. Any objections? 1041 01:03:19,416 --> 01:03:21,579 I have objections. I have lots of objections. 1042 01:03:21,654 --> 01:03:23,783 So ruled! Congress stands adjourned! 1043 01:03:23,858 --> 01:03:26,226 John, I need to see my wife. 1044 01:03:26,296 --> 01:03:29,963 - It's all right. Come along. - No. I'm going home tonight. 1045 01:03:30,037 --> 01:03:35,743 Of course you are. Of course. McNair, some rum up to my office. 1046 01:03:35,815 --> 01:03:39,755 Don't worry, Tom. Let me handle it. 1047 01:03:39,823 --> 01:03:41,759 I'll get Adams to write it. 1048 01:03:41,827 --> 01:03:44,297 I don't know. He had a funny look on his face. 1049 01:03:44,365 --> 01:03:45,765 He always does. 1050 01:03:45,834 --> 01:03:48,602 All right, gentlemen, let's get on with it. 1051 01:03:48,674 --> 01:03:51,703 Which of us will write our Declaration of Independence? 1052 01:03:53,283 --> 01:03:57,348 Mr. Adams I say you should write it 1053 01:03:57,424 --> 01:03:59,725 To your legal mind and brilliance we defer 1054 01:03:59,797 --> 01:04:03,293 Is that so Well, if I'm the one to do it 1055 01:04:03,371 --> 01:04:05,238 They'll run their quill pens through it 1056 01:04:05,308 --> 01:04:08,040 I'm obnoxious and disliked You know that, sir 1057 01:04:08,113 --> 01:04:11,085 - Yes, I know. - I say you should write it, Franklin 1058 01:04:11,152 --> 01:04:12,883 - Yes, you - Hell, no 1059 01:04:12,956 --> 01:04:15,519 Yes, you, Dr. Franklin, you 1060 01:04:15,595 --> 01:04:17,360 - But, but - You, you 1061 01:04:17,432 --> 01:04:19,595 - You - But 1062 01:04:21,674 --> 01:04:25,273 Mr. Adams But, Mr. Adams 1063 01:04:25,348 --> 01:04:28,788 The things I write are only light extemporanea 1064 01:04:28,856 --> 01:04:32,420 I won't put politics on paper It's a mania 1065 01:04:32,495 --> 01:04:36,367 So I refuse to use the pen in Pennsylvania 1066 01:04:36,437 --> 01:04:40,207 Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 1067 01:04:40,278 --> 01:04:44,082 Refuse to use the pen 1068 01:04:54,873 --> 01:04:58,336 Mr. Sherman I say you should write it 1069 01:04:58,415 --> 01:05:01,147 You were never controversial as it were 1070 01:05:01,220 --> 01:05:04,351 - That is true. - Whereas, if I'm the one to do it 1071 01:05:04,426 --> 01:05:06,362 They'll run their quill pens through it 1072 01:05:06,430 --> 01:05:07,990 I'm obnoxious and disliked 1073 01:05:08,067 --> 01:05:09,763 - You know that, sir - Yes, I do. 1074 01:05:09,836 --> 01:05:12,638 So I say you should write it Roger, yes, you 1075 01:05:12,710 --> 01:05:16,548 - Good heavens, no. - Yes, you, Roger Sherman, you 1076 01:05:16,618 --> 01:05:18,485 - But, but - You, you 1077 01:05:18,555 --> 01:05:20,582 But 1078 01:05:22,095 --> 01:05:25,626 Mr. Adams But, Mr. Adams 1079 01:05:25,703 --> 01:05:29,370 I cannot write with any style or proper etiquette 1080 01:05:29,444 --> 01:05:33,008 I don't know a participle from a predicate 1081 01:05:33,084 --> 01:05:35,920 I am just a simple cobbler from Connecticut 1082 01:05:37,025 --> 01:05:40,624 Connecticut Connecticut 1083 01:05:40,699 --> 01:05:44,366 A simple cobbler, he 1084 01:05:54,628 --> 01:05:58,465 Mr. Livingston maybe you should write it 1085 01:05:58,535 --> 01:06:01,302 You have many friends and you're a diplomat 1086 01:06:01,374 --> 01:06:04,244 - Oh, that word. - Whereas, if I'm the one to do it 1087 01:06:04,313 --> 01:06:06,043 They'll run their quill pens through it 1088 01:06:06,116 --> 01:06:08,554 He's obnoxious and disliked Did you know that 1089 01:06:08,623 --> 01:06:11,492 - I hadn't heard. - So I say you should write it, Robert 1090 01:06:11,561 --> 01:06:13,121 - Yes, you - Not me, Johnny 1091 01:06:13,198 --> 01:06:15,965 Yes, you, Robert Livingston, you 1092 01:06:16,037 --> 01:06:16,970 - But - You 1093 01:06:17,039 --> 01:06:18,302 - But, but - You, you 1094 01:06:18,375 --> 01:06:22,373 But 1095 01:06:22,451 --> 01:06:25,753 Mr. Adams Dear Mr. Adams 1096 01:06:25,824 --> 01:06:29,388 I've been presented with a new son by the noble stork 1097 01:06:29,464 --> 01:06:33,097 So I am going home to celebrate and pop a cork 1098 01:06:33,171 --> 01:06:36,872 With all the Livingstons together back in old New York 1099 01:06:36,946 --> 01:06:40,816 New York 1100 01:06:40,887 --> 01:06:46,957 Livingston's going to pop a cork 1101 01:06:56,952 --> 01:06:59,583 Mr. Adams 1102 01:06:59,658 --> 01:07:03,290 Leave me alone 1103 01:07:04,801 --> 01:07:07,034 - Mr. Jefferson. - Mr. Adams, I beg of you. 1104 01:07:07,107 --> 01:07:10,443 I've not seen my wife these past six months. 1105 01:07:10,513 --> 01:07:14,350 "And we solemnly declare that we will preserve our liberties... 1106 01:07:14,420 --> 01:07:17,415 being with one mind resolved to die free men... 1107 01:07:17,493 --> 01:07:19,088 rather than to live slaves." 1108 01:07:19,164 --> 01:07:23,901 Thomas Jefferson, on the "Necessity ofTaking up Arms," 1775. 1109 01:07:23,973 --> 01:07:25,408 Magnificent. 1110 01:07:25,476 --> 01:07:31,078 You write ten times better than any man in Congress, including me. 1111 01:07:31,154 --> 01:07:37,066 For a man of only 33 years, you possess a happy talent for composition... 1112 01:07:37,133 --> 01:07:40,628 and a remarkable felicity of expression. 1113 01:07:40,707 --> 01:07:43,838 Now, then, sir. Will you be a patriot... 1114 01:07:43,913 --> 01:07:45,849 or a lover? 1115 01:07:47,187 --> 01:07:49,123 A lover. 1116 01:07:50,661 --> 01:07:55,830 - But I burn, Mr. A. - So do I, Mr.J. 1117 01:07:55,903 --> 01:07:57,395 - You? - You do? 1118 01:07:57,474 --> 01:07:58,965 Who'd have thought it? 1119 01:08:00,781 --> 01:08:02,876 Mr. Jefferson 1120 01:08:02,952 --> 01:08:06,118 Dear Mr. Jefferson 1121 01:08:06,191 --> 01:08:11,828 I'm only 41 I still have my virility 1122 01:08:11,902 --> 01:08:16,845 And I can romp through Cupid's grove with great agility 1123 01:08:18,115 --> 01:08:23,422 But life is more than sexual combustability 1124 01:08:23,492 --> 01:08:25,519 - Jefferson, stop right there. - Bustability 1125 01:08:25,596 --> 01:08:27,759 Bustability 1126 01:08:27,834 --> 01:08:31,331 - Combustabili... - Quiet! 1127 01:08:35,016 --> 01:08:37,749 Now, you'll write it, Mr.J. 1128 01:08:37,822 --> 01:08:40,588 Who will make me, Mr. A.? 1129 01:08:40,661 --> 01:08:42,597 I. 1130 01:08:42,665 --> 01:08:44,225 You? 1131 01:08:44,302 --> 01:08:45,736 Yes. 1132 01:08:49,579 --> 01:08:52,243 How? 1133 01:08:52,317 --> 01:08:56,314 By physical force, if necessary. 1134 01:08:56,393 --> 01:08:59,388 It's your duty, damn it. Your duty. 1135 01:09:01,336 --> 01:09:03,568 Mr. Adams 1136 01:09:03,640 --> 01:09:07,101 Damn you, Mr. Adams 1137 01:09:07,180 --> 01:09:09,845 You're obnoxious and disliked 1138 01:09:09,919 --> 01:09:12,790 That cannot be denied 1139 01:09:12,859 --> 01:09:18,803 Once again you stand between me and my lovely bride 1140 01:09:18,870 --> 01:09:22,833 Lovely bride 1141 01:09:23,914 --> 01:09:29,517 Oh, Mr. Adams you are driving me to homicide 1142 01:09:29,592 --> 01:09:31,619 - Jefferson, stop right there! - Homicide 1143 01:09:31,696 --> 01:09:32,789 Homicide 1144 01:09:32,866 --> 01:09:34,801 Quiet! 1145 01:09:39,947 --> 01:09:43,910 The decision is yours, Mr. Jefferson. Do as you like with it. 1146 01:09:47,863 --> 01:09:55,676 We may see murder yet 1147 01:10:02,693 --> 01:10:04,629 Damn the man. 1148 01:10:07,303 --> 01:10:09,239 Goddamn the man. 1149 01:10:56,969 --> 01:10:58,905 Sorry. 1150 01:11:00,676 --> 01:11:02,612 Pardon me, sir. 1151 01:11:04,551 --> 01:11:06,578 How are you? 1152 01:11:21,218 --> 01:11:22,447 What is that racket? 1153 01:11:22,520 --> 01:11:24,615 Latest thing from Europe, John. It's called music. 1154 01:11:24,691 --> 01:11:28,061 I came here hoping to hear a pen scratching, not a bow. 1155 01:11:30,804 --> 01:11:34,004 Jefferson, I know you're in there! 1156 01:11:36,215 --> 01:11:38,276 Are you finished? 1157 01:11:39,521 --> 01:11:41,457 Well, is it written yet? 1158 01:11:44,331 --> 01:11:46,894 Well, you've had a whole week, man. 1159 01:11:46,970 --> 01:11:49,999 Is it done? 1160 01:11:50,076 --> 01:11:52,046 Can I see it? 1161 01:11:59,061 --> 01:12:01,554 "There comes a time in the lives of men when it becomes necessary... 1162 01:12:01,633 --> 01:12:04,969 to advance from that subordination in which they have hitherto rem..." 1163 01:12:05,039 --> 01:12:08,273 This is terrible. Where's the rest of it? 1164 01:12:14,625 --> 01:12:18,725 Do you mean to say that it is not yet finished? 1165 01:12:18,800 --> 01:12:23,264 No, sir. I mean to say that it's not yet begun. 1166 01:12:23,342 --> 01:12:26,280 Good God! 1167 01:12:26,348 --> 01:12:28,785 A whole week! 1168 01:12:28,853 --> 01:12:31,882 The entire earth was created in a week. 1169 01:12:35,634 --> 01:12:39,334 Someday you must tell me how you did it. 1170 01:12:42,047 --> 01:12:44,917 Disgusting. 1171 01:12:44,987 --> 01:12:48,983 Look at him, Franklin. Virginia's most famous lover... 1172 01:12:49,562 --> 01:12:51,589 Virginia abstains. 1173 01:12:55,273 --> 01:12:57,301 Well, cheer up, Jefferson. 1174 01:12:57,378 --> 01:12:59,314 Get out of the dumps. It'll come out all right, I assure you. 1175 01:12:59,382 --> 01:13:02,445 Now, get back to work. 1176 01:13:02,521 --> 01:13:05,118 Franklin, tell him to get back to work. 1177 01:13:05,193 --> 01:13:07,755 I think he's asleep. 1178 01:13:09,936 --> 01:13:12,099 Wake up, Franklin! 1179 01:13:15,982 --> 01:13:19,250 View, hello! And who, little girl, are you? 1180 01:13:23,095 --> 01:13:26,365 - John, who is she? - His wife. 1181 01:13:27,405 --> 01:13:29,875 I hope. 1182 01:13:29,943 --> 01:13:31,879 What makes you think so? 1183 01:13:31,947 --> 01:13:36,012 - Because I sent for her. - You what? 1184 01:13:36,089 --> 01:13:38,652 It simply occurred to me that the sooner his problem was solved... 1185 01:13:38,728 --> 01:13:40,755 the sooner our problem is solved. 1186 01:13:40,832 --> 01:13:43,599 That's good thinking, John. Good thinking. 1187 01:13:43,671 --> 01:13:46,973 Madam, may I present myself? John Adams. 1188 01:13:55,094 --> 01:13:57,291 Oh, and Dr. Franklin. 1189 01:13:59,669 --> 01:14:01,798 The inventor of the stove. 1190 01:14:06,383 --> 01:14:09,651 Jefferson, kindly present me to your wife. 1191 01:14:12,095 --> 01:14:14,189 She is your wife, isn't she? 1192 01:14:14,266 --> 01:14:16,998 Of course she is. Look at the way they fit. 1193 01:14:19,008 --> 01:14:20,945 Come along, John, come along. 1194 01:14:21,013 --> 01:14:23,279 - Franklin, where are you going? - Come along, John. 1195 01:14:23,350 --> 01:14:25,616 Come along where? There's work to be done. 1196 01:14:25,688 --> 01:14:27,817 Obviously. 1197 01:14:27,892 --> 01:14:32,128 Good God. You don't mean to say that... 1198 01:14:32,201 --> 01:14:35,265 I mean, they're not going to... 1199 01:14:35,341 --> 01:14:37,904 In the middle of the afternoon? 1200 01:14:37,980 --> 01:14:41,350 Not everybody's from Boston, John. 1201 01:14:41,420 --> 01:14:43,356 Incredible. 1202 01:14:43,424 --> 01:14:47,626 - Well, good-bye, John. - Uh, Franklin? 1203 01:14:47,699 --> 01:14:50,364 - Uh, have you eaten? - Not yet, but... 1204 01:14:50,439 --> 01:14:52,534 I understand the turkey's fresh at Bunch O' Grapes. 1205 01:14:52,610 --> 01:14:55,672 Well, the fact is, I have a rendezvous, John. 1206 01:14:55,749 --> 01:14:59,085 I'd ask you along, but talking makes her nervous. 1207 01:15:01,627 --> 01:15:03,564 Yes, of course. 1208 01:15:23,037 --> 01:15:25,702 Incredible. 1209 01:15:32,323 --> 01:15:35,055 Abigail? 1210 01:15:35,128 --> 01:15:37,598 I'm very lonely, Abigail. 1211 01:15:37,666 --> 01:15:40,695 Are you, John? Then as long as you were sending for wives... 1212 01:15:40,772 --> 01:15:42,708 why didn't you send for your own? 1213 01:15:42,776 --> 01:15:45,680 Oh, now, don't be unreasonable, Abigail. 1214 01:15:45,750 --> 01:15:47,982 Oh, now I'm unreasonable. 1215 01:15:48,054 --> 01:15:52,757 - You must add that to your list. - List? 1216 01:15:52,830 --> 01:15:57,568 The catalog of my faults you included in your last letter. 1217 01:15:57,640 --> 01:16:01,205 Oh, they were fondly intended, madam. 1218 01:16:01,280 --> 01:16:04,514 - That I play at cards badly? - A compliment. 1219 01:16:04,587 --> 01:16:08,960 - That my posture is crooked? - An endearment. 1220 01:16:09,029 --> 01:16:13,164 - That I read, write and think too much? - An irony. 1221 01:16:13,238 --> 01:16:15,299 That I'm pigeon-toed? 1222 01:16:17,246 --> 01:16:19,843 Oh, well, now there you have me, Abby. 1223 01:16:21,320 --> 01:16:23,552 I'm afraid you are pigeon-toed. 1224 01:16:25,629 --> 01:16:29,968 Please. Come to Philadelphia. Please come. 1225 01:16:30,038 --> 01:16:32,440 Oh, thank you, John. 1226 01:16:32,509 --> 01:16:34,536 I do want to, but you know now it's not possible. 1227 01:16:34,613 --> 01:16:36,846 The children have the measles. 1228 01:16:36,919 --> 01:16:38,911 So you wrote. 1229 01:16:40,125 --> 01:16:42,061 Tom and little Abby. 1230 01:16:42,129 --> 01:16:44,430 Only now it's Quincy and Charles. 1231 01:16:46,772 --> 01:16:50,040 And it appears the farm here in Braintree is failing, John. 1232 01:16:51,447 --> 01:16:54,544 The chickens and the geese have all died. 1233 01:16:54,620 --> 01:16:57,923 And the apples never survived the late frost. 1234 01:16:59,297 --> 01:17:03,361 How do you suppose she managed to get away? 1235 01:17:03,439 --> 01:17:06,673 Well, the winters are softer in Virginia. 1236 01:17:06,745 --> 01:17:09,615 And their women, John? 1237 01:17:09,684 --> 01:17:14,922 Fit for Virginians, madam, but pale, puny things beside New England girls. 1238 01:17:18,101 --> 01:17:20,128 I thank you for that. 1239 01:17:23,947 --> 01:17:26,885 Abigail, how goes it with you? 1240 01:17:26,953 --> 01:17:30,015 Not well, John. Not at all well. 1241 01:17:30,293 --> 01:17:34,255 I live like a nun in a cloister 1242 01:17:34,334 --> 01:17:38,274 Solitary, celibate I hate it 1243 01:17:38,342 --> 01:17:40,278 And you, John? 1244 01:17:40,346 --> 01:17:44,650 I live like a monk in an abbey 1245 01:17:44,721 --> 01:17:47,124 Ditto, ditto I hate it 1246 01:17:48,462 --> 01:17:56,275 Write to me with sentimental effusion 1247 01:17:56,345 --> 01:18:04,783 Let me revel in romantic illusion 1248 01:18:04,861 --> 01:18:11,900 Do you still smell of vanilla and spring air 1249 01:18:13,412 --> 01:18:17,253 And is my favorite lover's pillow 1250 01:18:17,453 --> 01:18:21,256 Still firm and fair 1251 01:18:22,030 --> 01:18:27,106 What was there, John 1252 01:18:27,574 --> 01:18:34,199 Still is there, John 1253 01:18:35,223 --> 01:18:39,103 Come soon as you can to my cloister 1254 01:18:39,498 --> 01:18:44,099 I've forgotten the feel of your hand 1255 01:18:44,299 --> 01:18:48,469 Soon, madam, we shall walk in Cupid's grove together 1256 01:18:48,585 --> 01:18:54,410 And we'll fondly survey 1257 01:18:55,030 --> 01:19:02,274 That promised land 1258 01:19:02,346 --> 01:19:06,878 Till then, till then 1259 01:19:06,954 --> 01:19:12,522 I am as I ever was 1260 01:19:12,598 --> 01:19:17,303 And ever shall be 1261 01:19:17,825 --> 01:19:20,039 Yours 1262 01:19:20,239 --> 01:19:22,213 Yours 1263 01:19:22,456 --> 01:19:24,856 Yours 1264 01:19:25,100 --> 01:19:27,700 Yours 1265 01:19:28,127 --> 01:19:31,588 Yours 1266 01:19:31,804 --> 01:19:34,207 Saltpeter 1267 01:19:35,412 --> 01:19:38,873 John 1268 01:19:50,809 --> 01:19:52,972 - What? - What are you doing down here? 1269 01:19:53,046 --> 01:19:55,073 I thought you'd be up there, cracking the whip. 1270 01:19:55,150 --> 01:19:59,923 - Well, the shutters are still closed. - My word! 1271 01:19:59,994 --> 01:20:02,362 So they are. 1272 01:20:03,968 --> 01:20:07,202 - Well, as the French say... - Oh, please, Franklin! 1273 01:20:07,275 --> 01:20:11,773 Spare me your bawdy mind, first thing in the morning. 1274 01:20:11,852 --> 01:20:13,115 Dare we call? 1275 01:20:13,187 --> 01:20:15,282 A congressman dares anything. 1276 01:20:15,358 --> 01:20:17,453 - Go ahead. - Me? 1277 01:20:17,529 --> 01:20:21,697 Your voice is more piercing. 1278 01:20:21,770 --> 01:20:25,801 - Oh, John, look at her. - Oh, I am. 1279 01:20:25,879 --> 01:20:28,316 She's even more magnificent than I remember. 1280 01:20:30,288 --> 01:20:32,851 Of course, we didn't see much of her front last night. 1281 01:20:32,927 --> 01:20:34,920 - Good morrow, madam. - Good morrow. 1282 01:20:38,504 --> 01:20:42,468 Is it the habit in Philadelphia to shout at ladies from the street? 1283 01:20:42,546 --> 01:20:44,778 - Not really, but... - And for men of your age... 1284 01:20:44,851 --> 01:20:48,346 it is not only unseemly, it is unsightly. 1285 01:20:49,559 --> 01:20:52,793 Excuse me, madam, but we met last evening. 1286 01:20:53,801 --> 01:20:56,865 - I spoke to no one last evening. - Indeed, you did not. 1287 01:20:56,942 --> 01:20:59,539 Nonetheless, we did present ourselves. 1288 01:20:59,614 --> 01:21:02,677 This is Mr. John Adams. I'm Dr. Benjamin Franklin. 1289 01:21:03,956 --> 01:21:07,087 The inventor of the stove. 1290 01:21:07,318 --> 01:21:10,915 Oh, please! I know your names very well, but... 1291 01:21:10,990 --> 01:21:13,618 Well, you said you presented yourselves last night? 1292 01:21:13,693 --> 01:21:16,389 It's of no matter. Your thoughts are well-taken elsewhere. 1293 01:21:18,999 --> 01:21:21,160 As my husband is not yet up. 1294 01:21:21,235 --> 01:21:23,864 Well, then shall we start over again? Won't you join us? 1295 01:21:23,938 --> 01:21:26,806 Why, yes, of course! 1296 01:21:28,577 --> 01:21:30,101 No wonder the man couldn't write. 1297 01:21:30,179 --> 01:21:32,113 Who would think of independence married to her? 1298 01:21:32,181 --> 01:21:34,514 - I'd feel an absolute fool. - That's good for you, John. 1299 01:21:34,584 --> 01:21:36,519 I tell you, Franklin, it's positively indecent. 1300 01:21:36,587 --> 01:21:40,114 - John, they're young and in love. - Not them, Franklin. Us. 1301 01:21:40,191 --> 01:21:44,492 Standing down here, waiting for them to... 1302 01:21:44,563 --> 01:21:46,497 Well, what will people think? 1303 01:21:46,565 --> 01:21:49,933 Don't worry, John. The history books will clean it up. 1304 01:21:50,003 --> 01:21:51,266 Well, it doesn't matter. 1305 01:21:51,338 --> 01:21:54,967 I'll not appear in the history books anyway. Only you. 1306 01:21:55,042 --> 01:21:57,307 Franklin did this and Franklin did that... 1307 01:21:57,379 --> 01:22:00,007 and Franklin did some other damned thing. 1308 01:22:00,081 --> 01:22:02,777 Franklin smote the ground and out sprang... 1309 01:22:02,851 --> 01:22:04,786 George Washington... 1310 01:22:04,854 --> 01:22:07,449 fully grown and on his horse. 1311 01:22:07,524 --> 01:22:10,755 Franklin then electrified him with his miraculous lightning rod... 1312 01:22:10,827 --> 01:22:14,628 then the three of them... Franklin, Washington and the horse... 1313 01:22:14,699 --> 01:22:17,930 conducted the entire revolution all by themselves. 1314 01:22:21,041 --> 01:22:26,447 - I like it. - I beg your pardon, gentlemen. 1315 01:22:27,014 --> 01:22:31,008 It is indeed an honor to meet the two greatest men in America. 1316 01:22:31,086 --> 01:22:33,385 Certainly the greatest within earshot anyway. 1317 01:22:33,756 --> 01:22:35,690 I'm not an idle flatterer, Dr. Franklin. 1318 01:22:36,058 --> 01:22:38,297 My husband admires you both greatly. 1319 01:22:38,497 --> 01:22:39,557 Then we are doubly flattered 1320 01:22:39,757 --> 01:22:43,628 for we admire very much that what your husband admires. 1321 01:22:48,465 --> 01:22:50,696 Did you sleep well, madam? 1322 01:22:52,370 --> 01:22:55,306 Well, I mean, uh, did you lie comfortably? 1323 01:22:57,043 --> 01:22:59,205 - Damn it, you know what I mean. - Yes, we know what you mean. 1324 01:22:59,279 --> 01:23:02,248 Tell us about yourself. We've heard precious little. 1325 01:23:02,315 --> 01:23:04,283 - What's your first name? - Martha. 1326 01:23:04,351 --> 01:23:08,289 Martha! He might at least have told us that. 1327 01:23:08,357 --> 01:23:10,291 Your husband doesn't say very much. 1328 01:23:10,359 --> 01:23:13,453 Most silent man in Congress. I've never heard him utter three sentences together. 1329 01:23:13,529 --> 01:23:15,464 Not every man's a talker, John. 1330 01:23:15,532 --> 01:23:19,935 Yes, it's true, you know. Tom is not a talker. 1331 01:23:22,441 --> 01:23:26,036 Oh, he never speaks his passions 1332 01:23:26,111 --> 01:23:28,978 He never speaks his views 1333 01:23:29,047 --> 01:23:32,745 Whereas other men speak volumes 1334 01:23:32,819 --> 01:23:37,154 The man I love is mute 1335 01:23:37,224 --> 01:23:39,819 In truth I can't recall 1336 01:23:39,894 --> 01:23:43,125 Being wooed with words 1337 01:23:43,198 --> 01:23:45,632 At all 1338 01:23:45,700 --> 01:23:49,570 Even now 1339 01:23:49,639 --> 01:23:53,006 - Oh, don't stop, madam. - No. Tell us, how did he win you? 1340 01:23:53,076 --> 01:23:56,342 And how does he hold on to a bounty such as you? 1341 01:23:56,414 --> 01:23:59,872 Well, surely you've noticed that Tom is a man of many accomplishments. 1342 01:23:59,951 --> 01:24:04,617 Author, lawyer, statesman, architect, farmer. 1343 01:24:04,691 --> 01:24:08,889 And still one more that I hesitate to mention. 1344 01:24:08,962 --> 01:24:11,796 - Don't hesitate, madam. - No, tell us. 1345 01:24:11,866 --> 01:24:15,097 What else can that redheaded tombstone do? 1346 01:24:16,837 --> 01:24:21,867 He plays the violin 1347 01:24:21,944 --> 01:24:26,279 He tucks it right under his chin 1348 01:24:26,350 --> 01:24:28,477 And he bows 1349 01:24:28,552 --> 01:24:30,486 Oh, he bows 1350 01:24:30,554 --> 01:24:34,617 For he knows Yes, he knows 1351 01:24:34,693 --> 01:24:38,925 That it's heigh, heigh heigh diddle-diddle 1352 01:24:38,998 --> 01:24:42,594 'Twixt my heart Tom and his fiddle 1353 01:24:42,669 --> 01:24:46,162 My strings are unstrung 1354 01:24:46,240 --> 01:24:49,368 Heigh, heigh, heigh 1355 01:24:49,443 --> 01:24:52,811 Heigh 1356 01:24:52,881 --> 01:24:55,975 I am undone 1357 01:24:56,051 --> 01:24:57,382 The violin, madam? 1358 01:24:57,452 --> 01:25:01,083 I hear his violin 1359 01:25:01,158 --> 01:25:04,423 And I get that feeling within 1360 01:25:04,495 --> 01:25:08,398 And I sigh Oh, I sigh 1361 01:25:08,466 --> 01:25:11,867 He draws near very near 1362 01:25:11,937 --> 01:25:16,137 And it's heigh, heigh heigh diddle-diddle 1363 01:25:16,210 --> 01:25:19,805 And good-bye to the fiddle 1364 01:25:19,880 --> 01:25:23,544 My strings are unstrung 1365 01:25:23,618 --> 01:25:26,451 Heigh, heigh, heigh 1366 01:25:26,521 --> 01:25:29,890 Heigh 1367 01:25:29,960 --> 01:25:32,121 I'm always undone 1368 01:25:32,195 --> 01:25:34,163 That settles it, John. We're taking up the violin. 1369 01:25:34,231 --> 01:25:37,132 Very well, madam. You have us playing the violin. What happens next? 1370 01:25:37,201 --> 01:25:39,965 - Next, Mr. Adams? - Yes. What does Tom do now? 1371 01:25:40,037 --> 01:25:42,939 Why, just what you'd expect. 1372 01:25:44,176 --> 01:25:47,305 - We dance. - Dance? 1373 01:25:47,380 --> 01:25:49,644 Dance? Incredible! 1374 01:25:49,716 --> 01:25:52,708 One, two, three. One, two, three. 1375 01:25:57,259 --> 01:25:59,193 Who's playing the violin? 1376 01:25:59,261 --> 01:26:01,355 Oh, John, really! 1377 01:26:36,905 --> 01:26:39,374 Oh, John, you can dance. 1378 01:26:39,442 --> 01:26:42,640 We still do a few things in Boston, Franklin. 1379 01:26:56,997 --> 01:26:59,727 Heigh, heigh, heigh 1380 01:26:59,800 --> 01:27:04,364 Heigh 1381 01:27:04,438 --> 01:27:08,274 When heaven calls to me 1382 01:27:08,344 --> 01:27:11,336 Sing me no sad elegy 1383 01:27:11,413 --> 01:27:13,348 Say I died 1384 01:27:13,416 --> 01:27:15,350 Loving bride 1385 01:27:15,418 --> 01:27:18,683 Loving wife Loving life 1386 01:27:18,755 --> 01:27:22,750 For it was heigh, heigh heigh, diddle-diddle 1387 01:27:22,828 --> 01:27:26,559 'Twixt my heart Tom and his fiddle 1388 01:27:26,631 --> 01:27:31,092 And ever 'twill be 1389 01:27:35,042 --> 01:27:37,603 Heigh, heigh, heigh 1390 01:27:37,679 --> 01:27:41,410 - Heigh - Heigh 1391 01:27:41,483 --> 01:27:45,944 - Through eternity - He plays the violin 1392 01:27:46,021 --> 01:27:54,463 He plays the violin 1393 01:28:02,641 --> 01:28:05,975 Look! Look, Franklin, he's done it. He's written it. 1394 01:28:08,048 --> 01:28:10,608 "Dear Mr. Adams, I am taking my wife back to bed. 1395 01:28:10,684 --> 01:28:14,586 Kindly go away. Your obedient, T. Jefferson." 1396 01:28:14,655 --> 01:28:16,590 Incredible! 1397 01:28:18,027 --> 01:28:20,757 You know, perhaps I should have written the declaration after all. 1398 01:28:20,830 --> 01:28:24,733 At my age, there's little doubt the pen is mightier than the sword. 1399 01:28:27,204 --> 01:28:32,007 For it's heigh, heigh heigh, diddle-diddle 1400 01:28:32,077 --> 01:28:36,104 And God bless a man who can fiddle 1401 01:28:36,182 --> 01:28:40,017 And independency 1402 01:28:40,086 --> 01:28:42,884 Heigh, heigh, heigh 1403 01:28:42,956 --> 01:28:45,255 Heigh 1404 01:28:45,326 --> 01:28:50,458 Ya da da da la 1405 01:28:50,532 --> 01:28:53,592 Through eternity 1406 01:28:53,669 --> 01:28:58,471 He plays the violin 1407 01:28:58,541 --> 01:29:08,512 Violin 1408 01:29:14,595 --> 01:29:16,722 Pennsylvania, Delaware... 1409 01:29:16,797 --> 01:29:19,288 Maryland... Virginia's absent... 1410 01:29:19,366 --> 01:29:23,667 and North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. 1411 01:29:23,738 --> 01:29:26,832 And what follows is a complete and up-to-date list... 1412 01:29:26,908 --> 01:29:29,208 of all the committees of this Congress... 1413 01:29:29,279 --> 01:29:33,739 now sitting, about to sit or just having sat. 1414 01:29:33,817 --> 01:29:36,912 "A committee formed to investigate a complaint made against... 1415 01:29:36,988 --> 01:29:40,549 the quality of yeast manufactured by Mr. Henry Pendleton's mill... 1416 01:29:40,625 --> 01:29:42,890 designated as the Yeast Committee. 1417 01:29:42,961 --> 01:29:47,262 A committee formed to consider the most effective method of dealing with spies... 1418 01:29:47,333 --> 01:29:51,361 designated as the Spies Committee. 1419 01:29:51,438 --> 01:29:54,498 A committee formed to think, perhaps to do... 1420 01:29:54,575 --> 01:29:57,841 but in any case, to gather, to meet, to confer, to talk... 1421 01:29:57,913 --> 01:30:01,543 and perhaps even to resolve that each rifle regiment... 1422 01:30:01,617 --> 01:30:05,553 be allowed at least one drum and one fife attached to each company... 1423 01:30:05,621 --> 01:30:08,318 designated as the Drum and Fife Committee. 1424 01:30:08,392 --> 01:30:10,554 A commitee formed to..." 1425 01:30:10,628 --> 01:30:12,562 Where is that committee? 1426 01:30:12,630 --> 01:30:16,067 What do you think of it, Doctor? Democracy. 1427 01:30:16,135 --> 01:30:19,662 What Plato called "a charming form of government... 1428 01:30:19,738 --> 01:30:22,707 full of variety and disorder." 1429 01:30:22,775 --> 01:30:25,575 I never knew Plato had been to Philadelphia. 1430 01:30:25,646 --> 01:30:29,377 Ben, I want you to see some cards I've gone and had printed up. 1431 01:30:29,450 --> 01:30:31,749 Oughta save everybody here a lot of time and effort... 1432 01:30:31,820 --> 01:30:36,655 considering the epidemic of bad disposition that's been going on. 1433 01:30:36,725 --> 01:30:39,958 "Dear sir, you are, without any doubt, a rogue, a rascal... 1434 01:30:40,030 --> 01:30:42,498 a villain, a thief, a scoundrel and a mean, dirty... 1435 01:30:42,566 --> 01:30:44,796 stinking, sniveling, sneaking, pimping, saqueador... 1436 01:30:44,868 --> 01:30:46,803 thrice double-damned no-good son-of-a-bitch." 1437 01:30:46,871 --> 01:30:48,805 And you sign your name. What do you think? 1438 01:30:48,873 --> 01:30:52,310 - I'll take a dozen right now. - Aha! Here it is. 1439 01:30:52,378 --> 01:30:55,405 "A committee formed to answer all congressional correspondence... 1440 01:30:55,482 --> 01:30:58,417 designated as the Congressional Correspondence Committee." 1441 01:31:00,921 --> 01:31:03,288 All right, Franklin, enough socializing. There's work to be done. 1442 01:31:03,358 --> 01:31:05,292 - Good morning, John. - What? 1443 01:31:05,360 --> 01:31:07,659 - Good morning. - Oh, good morning, good morning. 1444 01:31:07,730 --> 01:31:09,664 - Now, then, let's get to it. - Get to what? 1445 01:31:09,732 --> 01:31:11,724 Unanimity, of course. Look at that board. 1446 01:31:11,801 --> 01:31:13,996 Six nays to win over in little more than a week. 1447 01:31:14,070 --> 01:31:16,903 "A commitee formed to consider the problem of counterfeit money... 1448 01:31:16,973 --> 01:31:18,908 "designated as the Counterfeit Money Committee." 1449 01:31:18,976 --> 01:31:21,571 - Oh, God! What... - All right, John, all right. 1450 01:31:21,647 --> 01:31:23,740 - Where shall we start? - Well, what about Delaware? 1451 01:31:23,815 --> 01:31:27,047 Sad thing to see them on the wrong side after all this time. 1452 01:31:27,120 --> 01:31:29,452 - Any news of Rodney? - Yes. McKean's back. 1453 01:31:29,522 --> 01:31:31,717 - Thomas! - "A committee formed to study... 1454 01:31:31,791 --> 01:31:34,387 the causes of our military defeat in Canada." 1455 01:31:34,462 --> 01:31:38,330 Thomas, how did you leave Caesar? Is he still alive? 1456 01:31:38,400 --> 01:31:42,269 Aye, but the journey to Dover was fearful hard on him. 1457 01:31:42,338 --> 01:31:46,274 He never complained, but I could see the poor man was sufferin' terrible. 1458 01:31:46,342 --> 01:31:48,277 But you got him safely home. 1459 01:31:48,345 --> 01:31:52,112 I did, but I doubt he'll never set foot out of it again. 1460 01:31:52,183 --> 01:31:54,674 That leaves you and Read split down the middle. Will he come over? 1461 01:31:54,752 --> 01:31:57,482 I don't know. He's a stubborn ignoramus. 1462 01:31:57,555 --> 01:31:59,547 Work on him. Keep after him till you wear him down. 1463 01:31:59,625 --> 01:32:03,118 John, face facts, will ya? If it were just Read standin' in our way... 1464 01:32:03,196 --> 01:32:05,790 it wouldn't be so bad, but look for yourself, man. 1465 01:32:05,865 --> 01:32:09,893 Maryland, Pennsylvania and the entire South. It's impossible! 1466 01:32:09,970 --> 01:32:13,167 Well, it's impossible if we all stand around complaining about it. 1467 01:32:13,240 --> 01:32:15,903 To work, McKean! One foot in front of the other! 1468 01:32:15,977 --> 01:32:18,879 I believe I put it a better way: Never leave off until tomorrow... 1469 01:32:18,948 --> 01:32:20,882 Oh, shut up, Franklin. 1470 01:32:20,950 --> 01:32:23,010 But what good will it do? 1471 01:32:23,087 --> 01:32:26,579 You know Dickinson. He'll never give in. 1472 01:32:26,657 --> 01:32:28,591 And you haven't heard the last of Rutledge either. 1473 01:32:28,659 --> 01:32:30,720 Never mind about them. Your job is George Read. 1474 01:32:30,796 --> 01:32:33,594 Talk him deaf if you have to, but bring us back Delaware. 1475 01:32:33,666 --> 01:32:36,260 - There's a simpler way. - What? 1476 01:32:36,335 --> 01:32:39,828 - This'll break the tie. - All right, John, who's next? 1477 01:32:39,906 --> 01:32:42,101 "A committee formed to keep secrets... 1478 01:32:42,175 --> 01:32:44,370 designated as the Secrets Committee." 1479 01:32:44,444 --> 01:32:48,439 Pennsylvania and Maryland. I suggest you get your own house in order... 1480 01:32:48,517 --> 01:32:50,951 and I'll take a crack at old vacant-face... 1481 01:32:51,019 --> 01:32:53,249 Lord, look at him stuff himself. 1482 01:32:53,322 --> 01:32:55,723 Ah, Mr. Chase! 1483 01:32:55,792 --> 01:32:59,058 How about it, Chase? When are you coming to your senses, man? 1484 01:32:59,130 --> 01:33:02,225 Please, Mr. Adams, not while I'm eating. 1485 01:33:02,300 --> 01:33:04,791 Mr. Wilson, sir? 1486 01:33:04,870 --> 01:33:06,838 It's time to assert yourself. 1487 01:33:06,905 --> 01:33:08,930 Tell me something. When you were a judge... 1488 01:33:09,007 --> 01:33:11,806 how in hell did you ever make a decision? 1489 01:33:11,878 --> 01:33:16,543 The decisions I made were all based on legality and precedence. 1490 01:33:16,617 --> 01:33:20,748 But there is no legality here and certainly no precedent. 1491 01:33:20,822 --> 01:33:25,658 Because it's a new idea, you clot! 1492 01:33:25,728 --> 01:33:28,493 We'll be setting our own precedent! 1493 01:33:28,565 --> 01:33:32,160 No, Mr. McKean. No, no, no! 1494 01:33:32,235 --> 01:33:36,002 Damn your eyes, Read! You come into this world screamin' no... 1495 01:33:36,073 --> 01:33:39,804 and you're determined to leave it the same way, ya slimy worm! 1496 01:33:41,748 --> 01:33:44,376 The Congress is waiting on you, Chase! 1497 01:33:44,450 --> 01:33:48,216 America is waiting! The whole world is waiting! 1498 01:33:48,288 --> 01:33:50,223 What's that? Kidney? 1499 01:33:50,291 --> 01:33:54,421 Leave me alone, Mr. Adams! You're wasting your time. 1500 01:33:54,495 --> 01:33:58,058 If I thought we could win this war, I'd be at the front of your ranks... 1501 01:33:58,134 --> 01:34:01,160 but you must know it's impossible. 1502 01:34:01,237 --> 01:34:03,296 You've heard General Washington's dispatches. 1503 01:34:03,372 --> 01:34:05,364 His army has fallen to pieces. 1504 01:34:05,442 --> 01:34:08,172 Washington is exaggerating the situation... 1505 01:34:08,245 --> 01:34:10,942 in order to arouse this torpid Congress into action. 1506 01:34:11,015 --> 01:34:13,712 Why, as chairman of the War Committee, I can state for a fact... 1507 01:34:13,786 --> 01:34:16,220 that the army has never been in better shape. 1508 01:34:16,288 --> 01:34:18,984 Never have troops been more cheerful. 1509 01:34:19,058 --> 01:34:21,357 Never have soldiers been more resolute. 1510 01:34:21,428 --> 01:34:24,296 Never have training and discipline been more spirited. 1511 01:34:25,066 --> 01:34:27,000 Oh, good God. 1512 01:34:36,178 --> 01:34:39,809 May we have your ears, gentlemen? Mr. Thomson has a dispatch. 1513 01:34:39,884 --> 01:34:42,284 From the commander, army of the United Colonies in New York... 1514 01:34:42,353 --> 01:34:44,548 dispatch number 1,157... 1515 01:34:44,622 --> 01:34:47,456 to the Honorable Congress, John Hancock, President. "Dear sir... 1516 01:34:47,525 --> 01:34:50,460 it is with the utmost despair that I must report to you... 1517 01:34:50,528 --> 01:34:53,499 the disorder and confusion that reign in every department. 1518 01:34:53,567 --> 01:34:56,468 Oh, sweetJesus! 1519 01:34:58,038 --> 01:35:00,769 The Continental soldier is as nothing ever seen... 1520 01:35:00,842 --> 01:35:02,776 in this or any other century. 1521 01:35:02,844 --> 01:35:05,176 He is a misfit, ignorant of hygiene... 1522 01:35:05,246 --> 01:35:08,410 destructive, disorderly and totally disrespectful of rank. 1523 01:35:08,484 --> 01:35:10,419 Only this last is understandable... 1524 01:35:10,487 --> 01:35:15,083 as there is an incredible reek of stupidity amongst the officers. 1525 01:35:15,158 --> 01:35:17,093 The situation is most desperate... 1526 01:35:17,161 --> 01:35:19,722 at the New Jersey training ground in New Brunswick... 1527 01:35:19,798 --> 01:35:22,790 where every able-bodied whore in the..." 1528 01:35:22,868 --> 01:35:25,269 Whore? 1529 01:35:25,338 --> 01:35:27,397 "In the colonies has assembled. 1530 01:35:27,473 --> 01:35:31,603 There are constant reports of drunkenness, desertion, foul language... 1531 01:35:31,678 --> 01:35:34,205 naked bathing in the Raritan River... 1532 01:35:34,282 --> 01:35:36,375 and an epidemic... 1533 01:35:36,451 --> 01:35:40,148 of the French disease. 1534 01:35:40,221 --> 01:35:43,953 I have placed this town off-limits to all military personnel... 1535 01:35:44,026 --> 01:35:46,119 with the exception of officers. 1536 01:35:46,195 --> 01:35:49,792 I beseech the Congress to dispatch the War Committee to this place... 1537 01:35:49,867 --> 01:35:54,634 in the hope of restoring some of the order and discipline we need to survive. 1538 01:35:54,706 --> 01:35:57,107 Your obedient... 1539 01:35:57,176 --> 01:35:59,167 G. Washington." 1540 01:36:01,246 --> 01:36:04,217 That man would depress a hyena. 1541 01:36:05,720 --> 01:36:08,985 Well, Mr. Adams, you're chairman of the War Committee. 1542 01:36:09,056 --> 01:36:13,255 Do you feel up to whoring, drinking, deserting and New Brunswick? 1543 01:36:13,328 --> 01:36:18,426 There must be some mistake. I have an aunt who lives in New Brunswick. 1544 01:36:19,769 --> 01:36:22,830 You must tell her to keep up the good work. 1545 01:36:25,442 --> 01:36:27,672 Come, come, Mr. Adams. 1546 01:36:27,745 --> 01:36:29,839 You must see that it's hopeless. 1547 01:36:29,914 --> 01:36:31,849 Let us recall General Washington... 1548 01:36:31,917 --> 01:36:36,014 and disband the Continental Army before we're overwhelmed. 1549 01:36:36,089 --> 01:36:39,217 Oh, yes, indeed. The English would like that, now, wouldn't they? 1550 01:36:39,292 --> 01:36:43,251 Why not ask them yourself? They ought to be here any minute. 1551 01:36:43,330 --> 01:36:46,267 And when they hang you, Mr. Adams... 1552 01:36:46,335 --> 01:36:49,304 I hope you will put in a good word for the rest of us. 1553 01:36:57,847 --> 01:37:00,716 Face facts, Mr. Adams. 1554 01:37:00,786 --> 01:37:06,122 A handful of drunk and disorderly recruits against the British Army... 1555 01:37:06,191 --> 01:37:08,990 the finest musket men on earth. 1556 01:37:09,062 --> 01:37:13,159 How can we win? How can we even hope to survive? 1557 01:37:13,233 --> 01:37:15,167 Answer me straight, Chase. 1558 01:37:15,235 --> 01:37:18,797 If you thought we could beat the Redcoats... 1559 01:37:18,873 --> 01:37:21,307 would Maryland say yea to independence? 1560 01:37:21,376 --> 01:37:24,471 - Well, I suppose... - No supposing. 1561 01:37:24,547 --> 01:37:27,016 Would you or wouldn't you? 1562 01:37:29,486 --> 01:37:32,081 Very well, Mr. Adams. 1563 01:37:32,156 --> 01:37:34,488 Yes, we would. 1564 01:37:34,559 --> 01:37:38,325 - Then come and see for yourself. - John, are you mad? 1565 01:37:38,396 --> 01:37:40,365 You heard what Washington said. It's a shambles. 1566 01:37:40,433 --> 01:37:43,197 - They're pushing you into it, Johnny! - What do you say, Chase? 1567 01:37:43,269 --> 01:37:46,102 Go ahead, Sam. It sounds lively as hell up there. 1568 01:37:46,172 --> 01:37:48,107 All right. Why not? 1569 01:37:48,175 --> 01:37:51,110 And maybe it'll beJohn Adams who comes to his senses. 1570 01:37:51,178 --> 01:37:54,272 Mr. President, the War Committee will heed General Washington's request. 1571 01:37:54,348 --> 01:37:57,649 A party consisting of Chase, Franklin and myself will leave immediately. 1572 01:37:57,720 --> 01:37:59,779 Is, uh... 1573 01:37:59,856 --> 01:38:03,224 Is that satisfactory with you, Dr. Franklin? 1574 01:38:03,293 --> 01:38:05,591 Wake up, Franklin! You're going to New Brunswick. 1575 01:38:05,662 --> 01:38:08,894 - Like hell I am. What for? - The whoring and the drinking. 1576 01:38:11,103 --> 01:38:14,129 All right, Chase! Move all that lard. Not a moment to lose. 1577 01:38:14,206 --> 01:38:17,642 Left, right, left, right. Left, right, left, right. 1578 01:38:17,710 --> 01:38:19,702 Left, right, left! 1579 01:38:30,392 --> 01:38:34,328 Mr. McNair, all this talk of independence... 1580 01:38:34,396 --> 01:38:37,128 has left a certain foulness in the air. 1581 01:38:37,201 --> 01:38:41,297 My friends and I would appreciate it if you could open some windows. 1582 01:38:41,372 --> 01:38:43,432 Well, what about the flies? 1583 01:38:43,508 --> 01:38:46,068 The windows, Mr. McNair. 1584 01:38:47,746 --> 01:38:50,945 Open the windows, close the windows. 1585 01:38:51,018 --> 01:38:53,009 SweetJesus! 1586 01:39:01,863 --> 01:39:06,198 Oh, say, do you see what I see 1587 01:39:06,268 --> 01:39:10,069 Congress sitting here in sweet serenity 1588 01:39:10,140 --> 01:39:13,337 I could cheer The reason's clear 1589 01:39:13,410 --> 01:39:15,675 For the first time in a year 1590 01:39:15,746 --> 01:39:17,805 Adams isn't here 1591 01:39:17,882 --> 01:39:21,319 And look The sun is in the sky 1592 01:39:21,386 --> 01:39:23,480 A breeze is blowing by 1593 01:39:23,556 --> 01:39:27,356 And there's not a single fly 1594 01:39:27,427 --> 01:39:29,588 I sing, Hosanna 1595 01:39:29,662 --> 01:39:32,223 Hosanna 1596 01:39:32,299 --> 01:39:35,963 Hosanna, Hosanna 1597 01:39:36,037 --> 01:39:38,369 And it's cool 1598 01:39:39,642 --> 01:39:44,238 Come, ye cool, cool conservative men 1599 01:39:44,313 --> 01:39:48,149 Our like may never, ever be seen again 1600 01:39:48,219 --> 01:39:51,711 We have land Cash in hand 1601 01:39:51,789 --> 01:39:55,658 Self-command Future planned 1602 01:39:55,728 --> 01:39:59,425 Fortune thrives Society survives 1603 01:39:59,498 --> 01:40:01,558 In neatly ordered lives 1604 01:40:01,635 --> 01:40:05,231 With well-endowered wives 1605 01:40:05,306 --> 01:40:08,036 Come sing, Hosanna 1606 01:40:08,109 --> 01:40:10,340 Hosanna 1607 01:40:10,412 --> 01:40:14,246 In our breeding and our manner 1608 01:40:14,316 --> 01:40:17,844 We are cool 1609 01:40:17,920 --> 01:40:22,290 Come, ye cool, cool considerate set 1610 01:40:22,359 --> 01:40:25,988 We'll dance together to the same minuet 1611 01:40:26,064 --> 01:40:30,001 To the right Ever to the right 1612 01:40:30,069 --> 01:40:33,903 Never to the left Forever to the right 1613 01:40:33,974 --> 01:40:37,307 Let our creed be never to exceed 1614 01:40:37,377 --> 01:40:39,572 Regulated speed 1615 01:40:39,646 --> 01:40:43,083 No matter what the need 1616 01:40:43,686 --> 01:40:45,916 Come sing, Hosanna 1617 01:40:45,988 --> 01:40:47,922 Hosanna 1618 01:40:47,990 --> 01:40:55,420 Emblazoned on our banner is Keep cool 1619 01:41:03,975 --> 01:41:07,275 To the right Ever to the right 1620 01:41:07,347 --> 01:41:11,681 Never to the left Forever to the right 1621 01:41:11,751 --> 01:41:16,019 Hands attach Tightly latch 1622 01:41:16,091 --> 01:41:17,456 Everybody match 1623 01:41:17,525 --> 01:41:20,085 I have a new dispatch 1624 01:41:23,666 --> 01:41:26,067 From the commander, army of the United Colonies in New York... 1625 01:41:26,136 --> 01:41:28,195 dispatch number 1,158... 1626 01:41:28,271 --> 01:41:31,400 to the Honorable Congress, John Hancock, president. "Dear sir... 1627 01:41:31,476 --> 01:41:33,706 I awoke this morning to find that General Howe... 1628 01:41:33,778 --> 01:41:36,372 has landed 25,000 British regulars and Hessian mercenaries... 1629 01:41:36,447 --> 01:41:38,382 on Staten Island... 1630 01:41:38,450 --> 01:41:42,319 and that the fleet, under the command of his brother, Admiral Lord Howe... 1631 01:41:42,389 --> 01:41:46,190 controls not only the Hudson and the East River, but New York Harbor... 1632 01:41:46,260 --> 01:41:49,423 which now looks like all of London afloat. 1633 01:41:49,497 --> 01:41:51,431 I can no longer, in good conscience... 1634 01:41:51,499 --> 01:41:55,335 withhold from the Congress my certainty that the British object at this time... 1635 01:41:55,405 --> 01:41:57,339 is Philadelphia. 1636 01:41:57,407 --> 01:42:00,308 Happy should I be if I could see the means of preventing them... 1637 01:42:00,376 --> 01:42:03,369 but at present, I confess I do not. 1638 01:42:03,447 --> 01:42:07,247 Oh, how I wish I had never seen the Continental Army. 1639 01:42:07,317 --> 01:42:10,254 I would have done better to retire to the back country... 1640 01:42:10,322 --> 01:42:12,882 and to live in a wigwam. 1641 01:42:12,958 --> 01:42:15,586 Your obedient... 1642 01:42:15,661 --> 01:42:17,596 G. Washington." 1643 01:42:18,365 --> 01:42:22,530 What we do we do rationally 1644 01:42:22,603 --> 01:42:25,835 We never, ever go off half-cocked, not we 1645 01:42:25,908 --> 01:42:29,469 Why begin till we know that we can win 1646 01:42:29,545 --> 01:42:33,141 And if we cannot win why bother to begin 1647 01:42:33,216 --> 01:42:37,620 We say this game's not of our choosing 1648 01:42:37,688 --> 01:42:41,090 Why should we risk losing 1649 01:42:41,159 --> 01:42:44,993 We're cool, cool men 1650 01:42:46,898 --> 01:42:51,701 Mr. Hancock, you're a man of property, one of us. 1651 01:42:51,772 --> 01:42:54,263 Why don't you join us in our minuet? 1652 01:42:54,341 --> 01:42:57,140 Why do you persist in dancing with John Adams? 1653 01:42:57,212 --> 01:42:59,237 Good Lord, sir, you don't even like him. 1654 01:42:59,314 --> 01:43:03,080 That is true He annoys me quite a lot 1655 01:43:03,151 --> 01:43:06,554 But still I'd rather trot to Mr. Adams new gavotte 1656 01:43:06,623 --> 01:43:10,150 Why? For personal glory? For a place in history? 1657 01:43:10,227 --> 01:43:13,959 Be careful, sir. History will brand him and his followers as traitors. 1658 01:43:14,031 --> 01:43:16,761 Traitors, Mr. Dickinson? To what? 1659 01:43:16,834 --> 01:43:20,566 The British crown or the British half crown? 1660 01:43:20,640 --> 01:43:24,371 Fortunately, there are not enough men of property in America to dictate policy. 1661 01:43:24,444 --> 01:43:28,107 Perhaps not, but don't forget that most men with nothing... 1662 01:43:28,181 --> 01:43:31,208 would rather protect the possibility of becoming rich... 1663 01:43:31,285 --> 01:43:34,187 than face the reality of being poor. 1664 01:43:36,424 --> 01:43:38,893 And that is why they will follow us... 1665 01:43:38,961 --> 01:43:42,453 To the right Ever to the right 1666 01:43:42,532 --> 01:43:46,492 Never to left Forever to the right 1667 01:43:46,570 --> 01:43:49,768 Where there's gold A market to behold 1668 01:43:49,841 --> 01:43:51,775 Tradition that is old 1669 01:43:51,843 --> 01:43:53,778 Reluctant to be bold 1670 01:43:53,846 --> 01:43:55,973 I sing, Hosanna 1671 01:43:56,048 --> 01:43:58,073 Hosanna 1672 01:43:58,150 --> 01:44:01,417 In a sane and lucid manner 1673 01:44:01,489 --> 01:44:03,480 We are cool! 1674 01:44:03,558 --> 01:44:07,756 We're the cool, cool considerate men 1675 01:44:07,828 --> 01:44:11,629 Whose like may never, ever be seen again 1676 01:44:11,700 --> 01:44:15,398 We have land Cash in hand 1677 01:44:15,471 --> 01:44:19,408 Self-command Future planned 1678 01:44:19,476 --> 01:44:23,071 And we'll hold to our gold 1679 01:44:23,147 --> 01:44:25,275 Tradition that is old 1680 01:44:25,350 --> 01:44:27,318 Reluctant to be bold 1681 01:44:27,385 --> 01:44:32,256 We say this game's not of our choosing 1682 01:44:32,326 --> 01:44:35,818 Why should we risk losing 1683 01:44:35,896 --> 01:44:40,334 We're cool, cool cool, cool, cool 1684 01:44:40,401 --> 01:44:44,236 Cool, cool, cool cool, cool 1685 01:44:44,306 --> 01:44:56,448 Cool, cool men 1686 01:45:10,169 --> 01:45:14,835 How'd you like to try and borrow a dollar from one of them? 1687 01:45:14,909 --> 01:45:19,039 - You want some more rum, General? - General? 1688 01:45:19,114 --> 01:45:21,481 Lord, I ain't even a corporal. 1689 01:45:21,550 --> 01:45:25,647 Yeah, well, what's the army know? 1690 01:45:27,057 --> 01:45:29,618 Here, son. There you go. 1691 01:45:33,431 --> 01:45:38,199 Sit down, gentlemen. The chair rules it's too damn hot to work. 1692 01:45:48,015 --> 01:45:51,007 Well, General, what's it like out there? 1693 01:45:51,085 --> 01:45:53,418 You probably know more than me. 1694 01:45:53,488 --> 01:45:55,753 Sittin' here? SweetJesus... 1695 01:45:55,825 --> 01:45:59,728 this is the last place to find out what's going on. 1696 01:45:59,797 --> 01:46:01,731 I'm aimin' to join up. 1697 01:46:01,799 --> 01:46:04,597 What are you talkin' about? You don't have to join up. 1698 01:46:04,668 --> 01:46:07,034 - You're in Congress. - What's that got to do with it? 1699 01:46:07,104 --> 01:46:10,200 Well, you don't see them rushing off to get killed, do ya? 1700 01:46:10,276 --> 01:46:13,336 They sure are great ones for sending others, I can tell ya that. 1701 01:46:13,412 --> 01:46:15,608 Hey, who sits here? 1702 01:46:15,682 --> 01:46:17,980 Caesar Rodney of Delaware. 1703 01:46:18,051 --> 01:46:19,985 Where are you from, General? 1704 01:46:20,053 --> 01:46:22,022 Watertown. 1705 01:46:22,090 --> 01:46:25,151 - Where's that? - Massachusetts. 1706 01:46:25,227 --> 01:46:27,457 Well, then you belong over there. 1707 01:46:33,403 --> 01:46:34,768 But be careful. 1708 01:46:34,838 --> 01:46:38,707 There's something about that chair that makes a man awful noisy. 1709 01:46:42,781 --> 01:46:44,874 You seen any fighting? 1710 01:46:46,051 --> 01:46:48,282 Sure did. 1711 01:46:48,354 --> 01:46:52,121 I see'd my two best friends get shot dead on the very same day. 1712 01:46:53,427 --> 01:46:55,862 And at Lexington it was too. 1713 01:46:55,930 --> 01:46:58,626 Right on the village green. 1714 01:46:58,700 --> 01:47:02,933 When they didn't come home, their mamas went down the hill lookin' for 'em. 1715 01:47:03,005 --> 01:47:05,372 Mrs. Lowell, she found Timothy. 1716 01:47:07,577 --> 01:47:09,511 Right off. 1717 01:47:12,250 --> 01:47:14,184 But Mrs. Pickett... 1718 01:47:16,788 --> 01:47:20,749 she looked near half the night for William. 1719 01:47:20,827 --> 01:47:24,319 He went and crawled off the green... 1720 01:47:24,397 --> 01:47:26,331 before he died. 1721 01:47:34,409 --> 01:47:38,312 Mama, hey, Mama 1722 01:47:38,381 --> 01:47:43,342 Come lookin'for me 1723 01:47:43,420 --> 01:47:47,790 I'm here in the meadow 1724 01:47:47,859 --> 01:47:53,230 By the red maple tree 1725 01:47:53,299 --> 01:47:57,201 Mama, hey, Mama 1726 01:47:57,269 --> 01:47:59,636 Look sharp 1727 01:47:59,706 --> 01:48:03,074 Here I be 1728 01:48:03,144 --> 01:48:07,707 Hey, hey 1729 01:48:07,783 --> 01:48:12,880 Mama, look sharp 1730 01:48:15,259 --> 01:48:19,320 Them soldiers, they fired 1731 01:48:19,396 --> 01:48:24,061 Oh, Ma, did we run 1732 01:48:24,135 --> 01:48:27,935 But then we turned round 1733 01:48:28,006 --> 01:48:33,446 And the battle begun 1734 01:48:33,513 --> 01:48:37,347 Then I went under 1735 01:48:37,417 --> 01:48:42,789 Oh, Ma, am I done 1736 01:48:42,858 --> 01:48:47,057 Hey, hey 1737 01:48:47,130 --> 01:48:52,693 Mama, look sharp 1738 01:48:54,739 --> 01:48:58,972 My eyes are wide open 1739 01:48:59,044 --> 01:49:03,880 My face to the sky 1740 01:49:03,950 --> 01:49:07,579 Is that you I'm hearin' 1741 01:49:07,654 --> 01:49:12,525 In the tall grass nearby 1742 01:49:12,594 --> 01:49:15,995 Mama, come find me 1743 01:49:16,064 --> 01:49:20,331 Before I do die 1744 01:49:20,403 --> 01:49:24,237 Hey, hey 1745 01:49:24,307 --> 01:49:26,675 Mama 1746 01:49:26,744 --> 01:49:30,544 Look sharp 1747 01:49:32,750 --> 01:49:37,120 I'll close your eyes 1748 01:49:37,189 --> 01:49:40,387 My Billy 1749 01:49:40,460 --> 01:49:46,400 Them eyes that cannot see 1750 01:49:46,467 --> 01:49:49,562 And I'll bury ya 1751 01:49:49,638 --> 01:49:52,732 My Billy 1752 01:49:52,808 --> 01:49:59,875 Beneath the maple tree 1753 01:49:59,950 --> 01:50:02,544 And 1754 01:50:02,619 --> 01:50:06,920 Never again 1755 01:50:06,992 --> 01:50:13,365 Will ya whisper to me 1756 01:50:13,433 --> 01:50:18,602 Hey 1757 01:50:18,672 --> 01:50:21,734 Oh, Mama 1758 01:50:21,810 --> 01:50:30,515 Look sharp 1759 01:50:45,605 --> 01:50:48,768 The secretary will now read the report of the Declaration Committee. 1760 01:50:48,841 --> 01:50:50,776 Mr. Thomson. 1761 01:50:50,844 --> 01:50:54,337 "A declaration by the representatives of the United States of America... 1762 01:50:54,416 --> 01:50:57,510 in general Congress assembled. 1763 01:50:57,585 --> 01:51:00,679 When in the course of human events it becomes necessary for one people... 1764 01:51:00,755 --> 01:51:04,352 to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another... 1765 01:51:04,428 --> 01:51:07,056 and to assume among the powers of the earth... 1766 01:51:07,130 --> 01:51:09,827 the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature... 1767 01:51:09,901 --> 01:51:12,301 and of nature's god entitle them... 1768 01:51:12,370 --> 01:51:15,100 a decent respect to the opinions of mankind... 1769 01:51:15,173 --> 01:51:17,233 requires that they should declare the causes... 1770 01:51:17,309 --> 01:51:19,471 which impel them to the separation. 1771 01:51:19,546 --> 01:51:22,709 We hold these truths to be self-evident... 1772 01:51:22,782 --> 01:51:25,547 that all men are created equal. 1773 01:51:25,619 --> 01:51:29,316 They're endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights... 1774 01:51:29,390 --> 01:51:32,953 that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness... 1775 01:51:33,029 --> 01:51:34,963 that we secure these rights..." 1776 01:51:35,031 --> 01:51:39,229 Jefferson, we're back, and we've got Maryland. 1777 01:51:39,302 --> 01:51:42,033 That is, we will, as soon as Chase gets through telling the Maryland assembly... 1778 01:51:42,106 --> 01:51:44,233 what we saw in New Brunswick. 1779 01:51:44,308 --> 01:51:49,646 He's in Annapolis, describing a ragtag collection of provincial militiamen... 1780 01:51:49,715 --> 01:51:52,650 who couldn't drill together, train together or march together. 1781 01:51:52,718 --> 01:51:54,743 But when a flock of ducks flew over... 1782 01:51:54,820 --> 01:51:57,847 and they saw their first meal in three full days... 1783 01:51:57,924 --> 01:51:59,892 sweetJesus, could they shoot together! 1784 01:51:59,960 --> 01:52:02,259 - It was a slaughter. - A slaughter. 1785 01:52:02,330 --> 01:52:04,264 They're reading the declaration. 1786 01:52:04,332 --> 01:52:06,927 Good God! How far have they gotten? 1787 01:52:07,002 --> 01:52:10,699 "To render the military independent of and superior to the civil power." 1788 01:52:10,772 --> 01:52:14,210 "...independent of and superior to the..." 1789 01:52:19,650 --> 01:52:22,347 Nothing to fear. It's a masterpiece. 1790 01:52:23,054 --> 01:52:25,614 I'm to be congratulated. 1791 01:52:25,690 --> 01:52:27,715 You? 1792 01:52:27,792 --> 01:52:30,695 - For making him write it. - Oh, of course. 1793 01:52:32,099 --> 01:52:35,000 It's a masterpiece, I say 1794 01:52:35,068 --> 01:52:39,028 They will cheer every word, every letter 1795 01:52:39,107 --> 01:52:42,201 I wish I felt that way 1796 01:52:42,278 --> 01:52:45,612 I believe I can put it better 1797 01:52:45,682 --> 01:52:48,242 Now then attend as friend to friend 1798 01:52:48,318 --> 01:52:50,946 Our Declaration Committee 1799 01:52:51,021 --> 01:52:54,788 For us I see immortality 1800 01:52:54,859 --> 01:52:59,888 In Philadelphia City 1801 01:52:59,966 --> 01:53:03,129 A farmer, a lawyer 1802 01:53:03,203 --> 01:53:06,297 And a sage 1803 01:53:06,372 --> 01:53:09,467 A bit gouty in the leg 1804 01:53:09,543 --> 01:53:12,980 You know it's quite bizarre to think that here we are 1805 01:53:13,048 --> 01:53:17,713 Playing midwives to an egg 1806 01:53:17,787 --> 01:53:21,245 - Egg? What egg? - America. The birth of a new nation. 1807 01:53:21,324 --> 01:53:24,488 If only we could be sure of what kind of a bird it's going to be. 1808 01:53:24,562 --> 01:53:27,156 Tom has a point. What sort of bird shall we choose... 1809 01:53:27,232 --> 01:53:29,325 as the symbol of our new America? 1810 01:53:29,400 --> 01:53:32,893 - The eagle. - The dove. 1811 01:53:32,972 --> 01:53:35,702 The turkey. 1812 01:53:35,774 --> 01:53:38,038 The eagle. 1813 01:53:38,110 --> 01:53:41,809 - The dove. - The eagle. 1814 01:53:41,882 --> 01:53:44,874 - The eagle. - The turkey. 1815 01:53:44,952 --> 01:53:46,886 The eagle is a majestic bird. 1816 01:53:46,954 --> 01:53:49,856 The eagle is a scavenger, a thief and a coward. 1817 01:53:49,925 --> 01:53:53,623 A symbol of over ten centuries of European mischief. 1818 01:53:53,696 --> 01:53:56,928 - The turkey? - The turkey is a truly noble bird. 1819 01:53:57,001 --> 01:54:00,232 Native American. Source of sustenance of our original settlers. 1820 01:54:00,304 --> 01:54:02,431 An incredibly brave fellow who will not flinch... 1821 01:54:02,506 --> 01:54:05,567 at attacking a regiment of Englishmen single-handedly! 1822 01:54:05,644 --> 01:54:08,512 Therefore, the national bird of America is going to be... 1823 01:54:08,581 --> 01:54:11,574 - The eagle! - The eagle! 1824 01:54:11,652 --> 01:54:15,588 We're waiting for the chirp, chirp, chirp 1825 01:54:15,656 --> 01:54:18,216 Of an eaglet being born 1826 01:54:18,292 --> 01:54:21,457 Waiting for the chirp, chirp, chirp 1827 01:54:21,530 --> 01:54:24,761 On this humid Monday morning 1828 01:54:24,833 --> 01:54:28,861 In this congressional incubator 1829 01:54:28,938 --> 01:54:31,873 God knows the temperature's hot enough 1830 01:54:31,941 --> 01:54:35,470 To hatch a stone let alone an egg 1831 01:54:37,082 --> 01:54:40,540 We're waiting for the scratch, scratch, scratch 1832 01:54:40,619 --> 01:54:43,851 Of that tiny little fellow 1833 01:54:43,923 --> 01:54:46,949 Waiting for the egg to hatch 1834 01:54:47,026 --> 01:54:49,996 On this humid Monday morning 1835 01:54:50,064 --> 01:54:54,229 In this congressional incubator 1836 01:54:54,302 --> 01:54:57,294 God knows the temperature's hot enough 1837 01:54:57,372 --> 01:55:02,436 - To hatch a stone - But will it hatch an egg 1838 01:55:02,511 --> 01:55:06,973 The declaration will be a triumph. I tell you, a triumph. 1839 01:55:07,051 --> 01:55:09,110 If I was ever sure of anything, I'm sure of that. 1840 01:55:09,187 --> 01:55:11,621 A triumph. 1841 01:55:11,689 --> 01:55:16,093 And if it isn't, we still got four days left to think of something else. 1842 01:55:16,161 --> 01:55:19,962 The eagle's going to crack the shell 1843 01:55:20,033 --> 01:55:22,695 Of the egg that England laid 1844 01:55:22,769 --> 01:55:25,796 Yes, sir we can tell, tell, tell 1845 01:55:25,873 --> 01:55:28,865 On this humid Monday morning 1846 01:55:28,943 --> 01:55:33,075 In this congressional incubator 1847 01:55:33,149 --> 01:55:36,277 And just as Tom here has written 1848 01:55:36,352 --> 01:55:39,151 Though its shell may belong to Great Britain 1849 01:55:39,223 --> 01:55:42,750 The eagle inside belongs to us 1850 01:55:42,826 --> 01:55:46,024 And just as Tom here has written 1851 01:55:46,097 --> 01:55:48,589 We say to hell with Great Britain 1852 01:55:48,667 --> 01:55:50,794 The eagle inside 1853 01:55:50,870 --> 01:55:53,896 Belongs to us 1854 01:56:04,953 --> 01:56:06,887 "...and to do all other acts and things... 1855 01:56:06,955 --> 01:56:09,219 which independent states may of right do. 1856 01:56:09,291 --> 01:56:11,692 And for the support of this declaration... 1857 01:56:11,761 --> 01:56:14,287 we mutually pledge to each other our lives... 1858 01:56:14,365 --> 01:56:16,959 our fortunes and our sacred honor." 1859 01:56:19,104 --> 01:56:22,073 Thank you, Mr. Thomson. 1860 01:56:22,140 --> 01:56:26,475 The Congress has heard the report of the Declaration Committee. 1861 01:56:26,546 --> 01:56:28,742 Are there any here who wish to offer alterations... 1862 01:56:28,816 --> 01:56:31,751 deletions, amendments to this declaration? 1863 01:56:32,820 --> 01:56:34,948 Mr. President! 1864 01:56:35,023 --> 01:56:40,017 Gentlemen! Gentlemen, please! 1865 01:56:40,094 --> 01:56:42,894 Colonel McKean, I saw your hand first. 1866 01:56:42,966 --> 01:56:44,900 Mr. Jefferson... 1867 01:56:44,968 --> 01:56:48,062 it's a funny paper you've written, Tom, but somewhere in it... 1868 01:56:48,138 --> 01:56:52,940 you mention Scottish and foreign mercenaries sent to destroy us. 1869 01:56:53,010 --> 01:56:54,500 Scottish, Tom? 1870 01:56:54,579 --> 01:56:56,741 That is in reference to a Highland regiment... 1871 01:56:56,815 --> 01:56:59,842 which stood against us at Boston. 1872 01:56:59,919 --> 01:57:04,583 It's more likely Germans wearin' kilts to disguise their bein' there. 1873 01:57:04,657 --> 01:57:09,391 I ask you to remove the word and avoid givin' offense to a good people. 1874 01:57:09,463 --> 01:57:12,297 Mr. Jefferson? 1875 01:57:12,367 --> 01:57:15,462 - The Reverend, uh... - Witherspoon. 1876 01:57:15,538 --> 01:57:19,975 Mr. Jefferson, nowhere do you mention the Supreme Being. 1877 01:57:20,042 --> 01:57:24,208 Surely this was an oversight, for how could we hope to achieve a victory... 1878 01:57:24,282 --> 01:57:26,216 without his help? 1879 01:57:26,284 --> 01:57:30,619 Therefore, I suggest the following addition to your final sentence. 1880 01:57:30,689 --> 01:57:34,523 "With a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence." 1881 01:57:34,593 --> 01:57:37,791 Mr. Jefferson? 1882 01:57:39,100 --> 01:57:41,728 Mr. Read. 1883 01:57:41,802 --> 01:57:44,862 Among your charges against the king, Mr. Jefferson... 1884 01:57:44,939 --> 01:57:48,899 you accuse him of depriving us of the benefits of trial by jury. 1885 01:57:48,977 --> 01:57:53,609 This is untrue, sir. In Delaware, we've always had trial by jury. 1886 01:57:54,351 --> 01:57:56,876 In Massachusetts, we have not. 1887 01:57:56,954 --> 01:58:00,685 Well, then I suggest that the words "in many cases" be added. 1888 01:58:01,660 --> 01:58:03,594 Mr. Jefferson? 1889 01:58:03,662 --> 01:58:06,894 "In many cases"? Brilliant! 1890 01:58:06,966 --> 01:58:09,332 I suppose every time you see those three words... 1891 01:58:09,402 --> 01:58:11,735 your puny chest will swell with pride... 1892 01:58:11,805 --> 01:58:14,501 over your great historical contribution. 1893 01:58:14,575 --> 01:58:18,478 It's more memorable than your unprincipled whitewash of that... 1894 01:58:18,546 --> 01:58:20,207 race of barbarians! 1895 01:58:20,281 --> 01:58:23,911 Race of barbarians? Why, I'll have you... 1896 01:58:24,520 --> 01:58:26,887 Colonel McKean, Mr. Read, that's enough! 1897 01:58:29,225 --> 01:58:31,159 - Mr. Hopkins. - I've no objections, Johnny. 1898 01:58:31,227 --> 01:58:33,628 - I'm just trying to get a drink. - I should've known. 1899 01:58:33,698 --> 01:58:35,690 McNair, get him a rum. 1900 01:58:40,572 --> 01:58:44,475 - Mr. Barlett. - Mr. Jefferson. 1901 01:58:44,544 --> 01:58:47,775 I beg you to remember that we still have friends in England. 1902 01:58:47,847 --> 01:58:52,582 I see no purpose in antagonizing them with such phrases as... 1903 01:58:52,654 --> 01:58:55,452 "unfeeling brethren" and "enemies at war." 1904 01:58:55,523 --> 01:58:58,891 Our cause is with the British king, not the British people. 1905 01:58:58,961 --> 01:59:01,156 Be sensible, Bartlett. 1906 01:59:01,230 --> 01:59:04,894 Remove those phrases and the entire paragraph becomes meaningless. 1907 01:59:04,968 --> 01:59:08,302 And it so happens that it's one of the most stirring and poetic... 1908 01:59:08,373 --> 01:59:11,672 of any passage in the entire document. Now... 1909 01:59:11,743 --> 01:59:15,339 We're a Congress, Mr. Adams, not a literary society. 1910 01:59:15,414 --> 01:59:19,249 - I ask that the paragraph be stricken. - Mr. Jefferson? 1911 01:59:21,722 --> 01:59:26,022 Oh, good God, Jefferson, when are you going to speak up for your own work? 1912 01:59:26,093 --> 01:59:29,188 I had hoped that the work would speak for itself. 1913 01:59:29,264 --> 01:59:33,099 - Mr. Hancock? - What is it, Mr. McNair? 1914 01:59:33,169 --> 01:59:38,472 I'm not fond of"The United States of America" as a name for a new country. 1915 01:59:40,277 --> 01:59:42,745 I don't care what you're fond of, Mr. McNair. 1916 01:59:42,813 --> 01:59:46,444 You're not a member of this Congress! 1917 01:59:48,521 --> 01:59:50,853 Mr. Sherman. 1918 01:59:50,923 --> 01:59:56,021 BrotherJefferson, I noted at least two distinct and direct references... 1919 01:59:56,096 --> 01:59:58,724 to the British Parliament in your declaration. 1920 01:59:58,799 --> 02:00:01,531 Do you think it's wise to alienate that august body... 1921 02:00:01,603 --> 02:00:05,266 in light of our contention that they've never had any authority over us anyway? 1922 02:00:05,340 --> 02:00:07,865 This is a revolution, damn it! 1923 02:00:07,943 --> 02:00:10,003 We're going to have to offend somebody. 1924 02:00:10,080 --> 02:00:12,344 Brother Hancock! 1925 02:00:18,156 --> 02:00:20,750 You'll give yourself an attack of apoplexy if you're not careful. 1926 02:00:20,826 --> 02:00:22,851 - Have you heard what they're doing? - I heard. 1927 02:00:22,928 --> 02:00:26,330 And that's just our friends. Can you imagine what our enemies will do? 1928 02:00:26,399 --> 02:00:29,494 The word "parliament" will be removed wherever it occurs. 1929 02:00:29,570 --> 02:00:32,665 They won't be satisfied till they remove one of the F's from Jefferson's name. 1930 02:00:32,741 --> 02:00:35,904 Courage, John. It won't last much longer. 1931 02:00:38,780 --> 02:00:40,715 Mr. Dickinson. 1932 02:00:40,783 --> 02:00:44,743 Mr. Jefferson, I have very little interest in your paper... 1933 02:00:44,821 --> 02:00:48,656 as there's no doubt in my mind that we've all but heard the last of it... 1934 02:00:48,726 --> 02:00:52,025 but I am curious about one thing. 1935 02:00:52,096 --> 02:00:57,331 Why do you refer to King George as a tyrant? 1936 02:00:57,403 --> 02:01:00,133 Because he is a tyrant. 1937 02:01:00,206 --> 02:01:05,804 I remind you, Mr. Jefferson, that this tyrant is still your king. 1938 02:01:05,880 --> 02:01:08,178 When a king becomes a tyrant... 1939 02:01:08,249 --> 02:01:11,845 he thereby breaks the contract binding his subjects to him. 1940 02:01:11,920 --> 02:01:15,880 - How so? - By taking away their rights. 1941 02:01:15,958 --> 02:01:18,825 Rights that came from him in the first place? 1942 02:01:18,895 --> 02:01:24,358 All except one. The right to be free comes from nature. 1943 02:01:24,435 --> 02:01:27,370 And are we not free, Mr. Jefferson? 1944 02:01:29,074 --> 02:01:31,508 Homes entered without warrant. 1945 02:01:31,577 --> 02:01:34,705 Citizens arrested without charge. 1946 02:01:34,780 --> 02:01:38,274 And in many places, free assembly itself denied. 1947 02:01:38,352 --> 02:01:43,187 No one approves of such things, but these are dangerous times. 1948 02:01:43,257 --> 02:01:45,192 Be careful, Mr. Dickinson. 1949 02:01:45,260 --> 02:01:49,492 Those who'd give up some liberty in order to obtain temporary safety... 1950 02:01:49,565 --> 02:01:52,001 deserve neither liberty nor safety. 1951 02:01:53,637 --> 02:01:56,333 Mr. Wilson. 1952 02:01:56,407 --> 02:02:01,311 Do we in Pennsylvania consider King George a tyrant? 1953 02:02:01,379 --> 02:02:04,314 Well, I don't know. 1954 02:02:04,382 --> 02:02:06,317 He... 1955 02:02:06,385 --> 02:02:10,550 Oh, uh, no. No, we don't. 1956 02:02:10,624 --> 02:02:13,149 He's not a tyrant... 1957 02:02:13,227 --> 02:02:16,220 - in Pennsylvania. - There you are, Mr. Jefferson. 1958 02:02:16,297 --> 02:02:18,231 Your declaration does not speak for us all. 1959 02:02:18,299 --> 02:02:21,633 - I demand the word "tyrant" be removed. - Very well. 1960 02:02:21,704 --> 02:02:23,935 Just a moment, Mr. Thomson. 1961 02:02:24,007 --> 02:02:26,475 I do not consent. 1962 02:02:26,543 --> 02:02:31,447 The king is a tyrant whether we say so or not. 1963 02:02:31,515 --> 02:02:34,917 - We might as well say so. - But I already scratched it out. 1964 02:02:34,987 --> 02:02:38,650 Then scratch it back in. 1965 02:02:38,724 --> 02:02:41,717 Put it back, Mr. Thomson. The king will remain a tyrant. 1966 02:02:45,832 --> 02:02:49,031 - Mr. Hewes. - Mr. Jefferson. 1967 02:02:49,104 --> 02:02:52,130 Nowhere do you mention deep-sea fishing rights. 1968 02:02:53,508 --> 02:02:58,446 Oh, good God! Fishing rights! 1969 02:02:58,514 --> 02:03:01,381 How long is this piddling to go on? 1970 02:03:01,450 --> 02:03:04,944 We have been here for three full days. 1971 02:03:05,023 --> 02:03:08,652 We have endured, by my count, 85 separate changes... 1972 02:03:08,726 --> 02:03:12,288 and the removal of close to 400 words. 1973 02:03:12,364 --> 02:03:15,458 Now, would you whip it and beat it till you break its spirit? 1974 02:03:15,534 --> 02:03:21,475 I tell you that document is a masterful expression of the American mind! 1975 02:03:26,314 --> 02:03:28,249 If there are no more changes... 1976 02:03:28,317 --> 02:03:31,685 then I can assume the report of the Declaration Committee has been... 1977 02:03:31,754 --> 02:03:36,317 - Just a moment, Mr. President. - Look out. 1978 02:03:37,261 --> 02:03:39,821 I wonder if we might prevail upon Mr. Thomson... 1979 02:03:39,897 --> 02:03:44,927 to read again a small portion of Mr. Jefferson's declaration. 1980 02:03:45,004 --> 02:03:48,303 The one beginning "He has waged cruel war." 1981 02:03:50,710 --> 02:03:52,906 Uh, "He has affected. He's combined. 1982 02:03:52,980 --> 02:03:55,448 He's abdicated. He's plundered. 1983 02:03:55,515 --> 02:03:58,211 He's constrained. He's excited. He's incited. 1984 02:03:58,285 --> 02:04:00,778 He's waged cruel war." Here it is. 1985 02:04:00,856 --> 02:04:03,552 "He has waged cruel war against human nature itself... 1986 02:04:03,625 --> 02:04:06,526 in the persons of a distant people who never offended him... 1987 02:04:06,596 --> 02:04:10,498 captivating and carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere... 1988 02:04:10,567 --> 02:04:14,299 determined to keep open a market where men should be bought and sold. 1989 02:04:14,372 --> 02:04:18,707 - He has prostituted his..." - That will suffice, Mr. Thomson. 1990 02:04:18,777 --> 02:04:23,545 Mr. Jefferson, I can't quite make out what it is you're talking about. 1991 02:04:25,184 --> 02:04:27,153 Slavery, Mr. Rutledge. 1992 02:04:27,221 --> 02:04:31,158 Oh, yes. You're referring to us as slaves of the king. 1993 02:04:31,226 --> 02:04:33,888 No, sir. I'm referring to our slaves. 1994 02:04:33,962 --> 02:04:36,453 Black slaves. 1995 02:04:38,299 --> 02:04:40,860 Black slaves. 1996 02:04:40,937 --> 02:04:43,269 Why didn't you say so, sir? 1997 02:04:43,340 --> 02:04:46,572 Were you trying to hide your meaning? 1998 02:04:46,644 --> 02:04:47,906 No, sir. 1999 02:04:47,979 --> 02:04:52,040 Just another literary license, then. 2000 02:04:52,116 --> 02:04:54,050 If you like. 2001 02:04:54,118 --> 02:04:57,783 I don't like at all, Mr. Jefferson. 2002 02:04:57,857 --> 02:05:01,588 To us in South Carolina, black slavery is our peculiar institution... 2003 02:05:01,661 --> 02:05:03,596 and a cherished way of life. 2004 02:05:03,664 --> 02:05:06,690 Nevertheless, we must abolish it. 2005 02:05:06,767 --> 02:05:09,703 Nothing is more certainly written in the Book of Fate... 2006 02:05:09,771 --> 02:05:11,706 than that this people shall be free. 2007 02:05:11,774 --> 02:05:15,608 I am not concerned with the Book of Fate right now, Mr. Jefferson. 2008 02:05:15,678 --> 02:05:18,512 I'm more concerned with what is written in that little paper there. 2009 02:05:18,582 --> 02:05:22,643 That little paper there deals with freedom for Americans. 2010 02:05:24,089 --> 02:05:26,820 Oh, really. 2011 02:05:26,892 --> 02:05:28,826 Mr. Adams... 2012 02:05:28,894 --> 02:05:33,422 is now callin' our black slaves "Americans." 2013 02:05:33,499 --> 02:05:35,593 - Are they, now? - Yes, they are. 2014 02:05:35,669 --> 02:05:37,831 They're people and they're here. 2015 02:05:37,905 --> 02:05:39,839 If there's any other requirement, I've never heard of it. 2016 02:05:39,907 --> 02:05:42,934 They are here, yes, but they are not people. They are property. 2017 02:05:43,011 --> 02:05:47,209 No, sir. They are people who are being treated as property. 2018 02:05:47,282 --> 02:05:50,047 I tell you, the rights of human nature... 2019 02:05:50,120 --> 02:05:53,420 are deeply wounded by this infamous practice. 2020 02:05:53,491 --> 02:05:57,724 Then see to your own wounds, for you are a practitioner! 2021 02:05:57,796 --> 02:06:00,230 Are you not? 2022 02:06:05,370 --> 02:06:11,072 I have already resolved to release my slaves. 2023 02:06:29,432 --> 02:06:31,628 Then I'm sorry... 2024 02:06:31,702 --> 02:06:35,901 for you've also resolved the ruination of your personal economy. 2025 02:06:35,974 --> 02:06:39,467 Economy. Always economy. 2026 02:06:39,546 --> 02:06:42,515 There's more to this than a filthy purse string, Rutledge. 2027 02:06:42,582 --> 02:06:44,641 It's an offense against man and God. 2028 02:06:44,717 --> 02:06:48,246 It's a stinking business, Mr. Rutledge. A stinking business. 2029 02:06:48,323 --> 02:06:50,291 Is it really, Mr. Hopkins? 2030 02:06:50,358 --> 02:06:52,451 Then what is that I smell... 2031 02:06:52,527 --> 02:06:55,019 floatin' down from the North? 2032 02:06:56,465 --> 02:06:58,797 Could that be the aroma of hypocrisy? 2033 02:06:58,868 --> 02:07:02,806 For who holds the other end of that filthy purse string, Mr. Adams? 2034 02:07:06,511 --> 02:07:11,882 Our northern brethren feelin' a bit tender toward our slaves. 2035 02:07:11,951 --> 02:07:14,317 They don't keep slaves. 2036 02:07:14,386 --> 02:07:16,582 Oh, no. 2037 02:07:16,656 --> 02:07:20,457 But they're willin' to be considerable carriers... 2038 02:07:20,528 --> 02:07:22,996 of slaves to others. 2039 02:07:23,064 --> 02:07:26,034 They're willin'... 2040 02:07:26,101 --> 02:07:28,194 for the shillin'. 2041 02:07:28,270 --> 02:07:31,729 Or haven't you heard, Mr. Adams? 2042 02:07:31,808 --> 02:07:35,475 Clink, clink. 2043 02:07:35,546 --> 02:07:38,310 Molasses to rum 2044 02:07:38,382 --> 02:07:41,375 To slaves 2045 02:07:41,453 --> 02:07:47,120 Oh, what a beautiful waltz 2046 02:07:47,193 --> 02:07:49,662 You dance with us 2047 02:07:49,730 --> 02:07:52,130 We dance with you 2048 02:07:52,199 --> 02:08:00,301 In molasses and rum and slaves 2049 02:08:00,376 --> 02:08:04,039 Who sail the ships out of Boston 2050 02:08:04,113 --> 02:08:07,982 Laden with Bibles and rum 2051 02:08:08,051 --> 02:08:11,612 Who drinks a toast to the Ivory Coast 2052 02:08:11,688 --> 02:08:15,751 Hail, Africa the slavers have come 2053 02:08:15,827 --> 02:08:19,319 New England with Bibles 2054 02:08:19,398 --> 02:08:22,562 And rum 2055 02:08:22,635 --> 02:08:25,229 Then it's off with the rum and the Bibles 2056 02:08:25,305 --> 02:08:28,139 Take on the slaves Clink, clink 2057 02:08:28,208 --> 02:08:32,168 Then hail and farewell to the smell 2058 02:08:32,247 --> 02:08:36,981 Of the African coast 2059 02:08:39,822 --> 02:08:44,761 Molasses to rum to slaves 2060 02:08:44,829 --> 02:08:50,597 'Tisn't morals 'Tis money that saves 2061 02:08:50,668 --> 02:08:55,733 Shall we dance to the sound of the profitable pound 2062 02:08:55,809 --> 02:09:03,876 In molasses and rum and slaves 2063 02:09:03,951 --> 02:09:07,318 Who sail the ships out of Guinea 2064 02:09:07,388 --> 02:09:10,951 Laden with Bibles and slaves 2065 02:09:11,027 --> 02:09:14,724 'Tis Boston can boast to the West Indies's coast 2066 02:09:14,797 --> 02:09:18,598 Jamaica, we brung what ye craves 2067 02:09:18,669 --> 02:09:22,036 Antigua, Barbados 2068 02:09:22,106 --> 02:09:25,566 We brung Bibles 2069 02:09:25,644 --> 02:09:29,375 And slaves 2070 02:09:29,448 --> 02:09:32,509 Gentlemen, you mustn't think that our northern friends... 2071 02:09:32,586 --> 02:09:36,022 see our black slaves as merely figures in a ledger. 2072 02:09:36,089 --> 02:09:42,030 Oh, no. They see them as figures on a block. 2073 02:09:42,097 --> 02:09:44,827 Look at the faces at the auctions, gentlemen. 2074 02:09:44,900 --> 02:09:47,425 White faces on African wharves. 2075 02:09:47,503 --> 02:09:50,963 Seafaring faces. New England faces. 2076 02:09:51,041 --> 02:09:53,509 "Put them in the ships. 2077 02:09:53,577 --> 02:09:56,547 Cram them in the ships. 2078 02:09:56,615 --> 02:09:59,880 Stuff them in the ships." 2079 02:09:59,951 --> 02:10:03,648 Hurry, gentlemen. Let the auction begin. 2080 02:10:03,723 --> 02:10:08,855 Ya ha, ya ha ma Cundah 2081 02:10:08,929 --> 02:10:12,832 Gentlemen, do you hear? That's the cry of the auctioneer. 2082 02:10:12,901 --> 02:10:17,838 Ya ha, ya ha ma Cundah 2083 02:10:17,906 --> 02:10:20,342 Slaves, gentlemen! 2084 02:10:20,410 --> 02:10:22,810 Black gold! 2085 02:10:22,879 --> 02:10:25,211 Livin' gold! 2086 02:10:25,282 --> 02:10:28,912 Gold from Angola! 2087 02:10:28,986 --> 02:10:30,920 Guinea, Guinea, Guinea! 2088 02:10:30,988 --> 02:10:33,719 Blackbirds for sale 2089 02:10:33,792 --> 02:10:38,526 Ashanti, ebo, ebo, ebo! 2090 02:10:38,598 --> 02:10:41,567 Blackbirds for sale 2091 02:10:41,634 --> 02:10:45,662 Handle them! 2092 02:10:45,739 --> 02:10:49,198 Fondle them! 2093 02:10:49,277 --> 02:10:52,270 But don't finger them! 2094 02:10:52,348 --> 02:10:57,479 They're prime They're prime 2095 02:10:57,553 --> 02:11:04,654 Ya ha, ya ha ma Cundah 2096 02:11:04,729 --> 02:11:08,291 For the love of God, Mr. Rutledge, please. 2097 02:11:17,078 --> 02:11:20,138 Molasses to rum 2098 02:11:20,214 --> 02:11:23,446 To slaves 2099 02:11:23,519 --> 02:11:28,616 Who sail the ships back to Boston 2100 02:11:28,690 --> 02:11:34,358 Laden with gold See it gleam 2101 02:11:34,431 --> 02:11:39,062 Whose fortunes are made in the triangle trade 2102 02:11:39,137 --> 02:11:43,540 Hail, slavery the New England dream 2103 02:11:43,608 --> 02:11:47,307 Mr. Adams, I give you a toast. 2104 02:11:47,381 --> 02:11:49,542 Hail, Boston 2105 02:11:49,616 --> 02:11:52,107 Hail, Charleston 2106 02:11:53,754 --> 02:12:03,598 Who stinketh the most 2107 02:12:08,872 --> 02:12:11,866 Mr. Rutledge, please! 2108 02:12:14,179 --> 02:12:16,170 Mr. Hewes. 2109 02:12:19,118 --> 02:12:21,086 Dr. Hall. 2110 02:12:31,066 --> 02:12:33,660 Don't worry, John. They'll be back. 2111 02:12:33,735 --> 02:12:36,864 Aye, to vote us down. 2112 02:12:42,547 --> 02:12:46,847 Adams! Franklin! 2113 02:12:46,918 --> 02:12:51,083 It's done. I have it. And the Maryland Assembly's approved it. 2114 02:12:51,156 --> 02:12:56,390 I told them about one of the greatest military engagements in history... 2115 02:12:56,463 --> 02:12:58,591 against a flock of, uh... 2116 02:13:01,769 --> 02:13:05,705 Well, what's wrong? I thought... 2117 02:13:05,773 --> 02:13:07,765 You'll have to forgive them, Mr. Chase. 2118 02:13:07,843 --> 02:13:10,608 They just suffered a slight setback. 2119 02:13:10,680 --> 02:13:13,274 And after all, "What is a man profited... 2120 02:13:13,349 --> 02:13:17,719 if he shall gain Maryland and lose the entire South?" 2121 02:13:18,922 --> 02:13:23,486 Matthew, chapter 16, verse 26. 2122 02:13:23,562 --> 02:13:25,530 McNair. 2123 02:13:25,598 --> 02:13:29,398 - Oh, I know. The flies. - No. 2124 02:13:29,468 --> 02:13:31,403 The rum. 2125 02:13:35,442 --> 02:13:37,707 Well, what are we all sitting around for? 2126 02:13:39,381 --> 02:13:41,315 We're wasting time. Precious time. 2127 02:13:41,383 --> 02:13:43,544 Thomas, I want you to ride down into Delaware... 2128 02:13:43,619 --> 02:13:46,350 - and fetch back Caesar Rodney. - John, are you mad? 2129 02:13:46,423 --> 02:13:50,325 - It's 80 miles, and he's a dyin' man. - No, he's a patriot. 2130 02:13:50,393 --> 02:13:53,192 John, what good will it do? The South's done us in. 2131 02:13:53,264 --> 02:13:55,199 And suppose they change their minds? 2132 02:13:55,267 --> 02:13:57,667 Can we get Delaware without Rodney? 2133 02:14:00,305 --> 02:14:04,140 God! What a bastardly bunch we are. 2134 02:14:06,013 --> 02:14:09,107 - Stephen, I want you to... - I'm going to the tavern, Johnny. 2135 02:14:09,183 --> 02:14:13,712 If there's anything I can do for you there, let me know. 2136 02:14:13,788 --> 02:14:17,019 Chase. Bartlett! 2137 02:14:17,092 --> 02:14:20,655 What's the use, John? The vote's tomorrow morning. 2138 02:14:20,731 --> 02:14:23,325 There's less than a full day left. 2139 02:14:26,471 --> 02:14:31,067 - Roger. - Face facts, John. It's finished. 2140 02:14:33,312 --> 02:14:35,406 I'm sorry, John. 2141 02:14:43,190 --> 02:14:46,250 We have no choice, John. 2142 02:14:46,327 --> 02:14:48,262 The slavery clause has got to go. 2143 02:14:50,867 --> 02:14:52,801 Franklin, what are you saying? 2144 02:14:52,869 --> 02:14:55,133 It's a luxury we can't afford. 2145 02:14:56,205 --> 02:14:58,265 A luxury? 2146 02:14:59,977 --> 02:15:03,846 A half million souls in chains... 2147 02:15:03,915 --> 02:15:07,784 and Dr. Franklin calls it a luxury. 2148 02:15:07,853 --> 02:15:10,287 Maybe you should've walked out with the South. 2149 02:15:10,356 --> 02:15:12,449 You forget yourself, sir. 2150 02:15:12,525 --> 02:15:15,553 I founded the first antislavery society on this continent. 2151 02:15:15,630 --> 02:15:19,828 Don't wave your credentials at me. Perhaps it's time you had them renewed. 2152 02:15:19,901 --> 02:15:23,030 The issue here is independence. 2153 02:15:23,105 --> 02:15:25,630 Perhaps you've forgotten that fact, but I have not. 2154 02:15:25,707 --> 02:15:31,841 How dare you jeopardize our cause when we've come so far! 2155 02:15:33,250 --> 02:15:35,810 These men... 2156 02:15:35,886 --> 02:15:38,151 no matter how much we may disagree with them... 2157 02:15:38,223 --> 02:15:41,488 are not ribbon clerks to be ordered about. 2158 02:15:41,560 --> 02:15:44,860 They're proud, accomplished men. The cream of their colonies. 2159 02:15:44,931 --> 02:15:47,924 And whether you like it or not, they and the people they represent... 2160 02:15:48,001 --> 02:15:51,903 will be part of this new nation you'd hope to create. 2161 02:15:51,972 --> 02:15:55,170 Now either learn how to live with them or pack up and go home. 2162 02:16:00,583 --> 02:16:03,576 In any case, stop acting like a Boston fishwife. 2163 02:16:17,937 --> 02:16:20,906 Good God. What's happened to me? 2164 02:16:20,974 --> 02:16:24,341 John Adams. The greatJohn Adams. 2165 02:16:24,410 --> 02:16:26,346 What have I come to? 2166 02:16:26,414 --> 02:16:30,407 Law practice down the pipe. Farm mortgaged to the hilt. 2167 02:16:30,485 --> 02:16:33,649 At a stage in life when other men prosper... 2168 02:16:33,723 --> 02:16:36,055 I'm reduced to living in Philadelphia. 2169 02:16:38,461 --> 02:16:40,396 Philadelphia. 2170 02:16:49,308 --> 02:16:51,833 Abigail, what am I going to do? 2171 02:16:51,911 --> 02:16:54,506 Do, John? 2172 02:16:54,581 --> 02:16:56,812 I need your help. 2173 02:16:56,884 --> 02:16:59,444 You don't usually ask my advice. 2174 02:16:59,520 --> 02:17:02,978 Yes, well, there doesn't appear to be anyone else right now. 2175 02:17:03,057 --> 02:17:05,856 Very well, John. What is it? 2176 02:17:05,928 --> 02:17:10,059 The entire South has just walked out of this Congress... 2177 02:17:10,133 --> 02:17:13,968 George Washington is on the verge of total annihilation... 2178 02:17:14,038 --> 02:17:17,030 and the precious cause for which I have labored these several years... 2179 02:17:17,107 --> 02:17:19,041 has come to nothing. 2180 02:17:20,712 --> 02:17:24,274 And it seems that I'm obnoxious and disliked. 2181 02:17:24,350 --> 02:17:26,682 Nonsense, John. 2182 02:17:26,752 --> 02:17:29,221 That I am unwilling to face reality. 2183 02:17:29,289 --> 02:17:31,416 Foolishness, John. 2184 02:17:31,491 --> 02:17:33,652 That I'm pigheaded. 2185 02:17:33,727 --> 02:17:35,661 Ah, well, there you have me, John. 2186 02:17:35,729 --> 02:17:37,858 I'm afraid you are pig-headed. 2187 02:17:41,170 --> 02:17:43,229 Well, yes. 2188 02:17:45,442 --> 02:17:48,343 Oh, Abby. 2189 02:17:48,411 --> 02:17:51,711 Has it been any kind of a life for you? 2190 02:17:51,782 --> 02:17:54,217 God knows I haven't given you very much. 2191 02:17:54,286 --> 02:17:57,619 I never asked for more. 2192 02:17:57,689 --> 02:17:59,623 After all, I am Mrs. John Adams. 2193 02:17:59,691 --> 02:18:02,388 That's quite a lot for one lifetime. 2194 02:18:04,531 --> 02:18:07,796 - Is it, Abby? - Well, think of it, John. 2195 02:18:07,869 --> 02:18:11,930 To be married to the man who is always the first in line to be hanged. 2196 02:18:16,245 --> 02:18:18,680 Yes. The agitator. 2197 02:18:20,951 --> 02:18:24,046 Why, Abby? 2198 02:18:24,122 --> 02:18:27,285 You must tell me what it is. L... 2199 02:18:27,358 --> 02:18:31,989 Well, I have always been dissatisfied. I know that. 2200 02:18:32,064 --> 02:18:36,502 But lately, I find that I reek of discontentment. 2201 02:18:36,569 --> 02:18:40,336 It fills my throat, and it floods my brain. 2202 02:18:44,311 --> 02:18:48,579 Sometimes I fear there is no longer a dream. 2203 02:18:48,651 --> 02:18:51,176 Only the discontentment. 2204 02:18:56,727 --> 02:19:01,062 Can you really know so little about yourself? 2205 02:19:01,132 --> 02:19:03,157 And can you think so little of me that you'd believe... 2206 02:19:03,234 --> 02:19:05,897 I'd marry the man you've described? 2207 02:19:07,474 --> 02:19:10,602 Have you forgotten what you used to say to me? I haven't. 2208 02:19:12,613 --> 02:19:15,708 "Commitment, Abby. 2209 02:19:15,784 --> 02:19:18,549 Commitment. 2210 02:19:18,621 --> 02:19:23,490 There are only two creatures of value on the face of this earth... 2211 02:19:23,559 --> 02:19:25,925 those with a commitment... 2212 02:19:25,995 --> 02:19:29,194 and those who require the commitment of others." 2213 02:19:31,302 --> 02:19:33,361 Do you remember, John? 2214 02:19:35,274 --> 02:19:37,469 Yes, I remember. 2215 02:19:37,543 --> 02:19:41,070 Mr. Adams! 2216 02:19:41,147 --> 02:19:44,118 Are you up there, Mr. Adams? 2217 02:19:44,185 --> 02:19:45,914 What do you want? 2218 02:19:45,987 --> 02:19:49,980 There's a delivery down here for ya. 2219 02:19:50,057 --> 02:19:53,255 What is it? 2220 02:19:53,328 --> 02:19:55,421 Where did it come from? Who sent it? 2221 02:20:01,806 --> 02:20:06,437 Compliments of the Concord Ladies'coffee club 2222 02:20:06,511 --> 02:20:11,381 And the Sisterhood of the Truro Synagogue 2223 02:20:11,451 --> 02:20:16,355 And the Friday evening Baptist sewing circle 2224 02:20:16,423 --> 02:20:21,383 And the Holy Christian Sisters of St. Claire 2225 02:20:21,462 --> 02:20:25,366 All for you 2226 02:20:25,434 --> 02:20:28,562 John 2227 02:20:28,637 --> 02:20:34,201 I am, as I ever was 2228 02:20:34,277 --> 02:20:39,012 And ever shall be 2229 02:20:39,084 --> 02:20:44,545 Yours, yours, yours 2230 02:20:44,623 --> 02:20:47,491 Yours 2231 02:20:47,560 --> 02:20:51,155 Abigail, what's in these kegs? 2232 02:20:51,231 --> 02:21:02,133 Saltpeter, John 2233 02:21:05,615 --> 02:21:07,584 McNair! 2234 02:21:07,651 --> 02:21:10,746 McNair, go out and buy every damned pin you can find in Philadelphia. 2235 02:21:10,822 --> 02:21:12,756 Pin? What sort of pin? 2236 02:21:12,824 --> 02:21:15,759 Well, I don't know. Whatever the ladies use for their sewing. 2237 02:21:15,827 --> 02:21:19,161 Franklin, Jefferson, what are you all sitting around for? 2238 02:21:19,231 --> 02:21:22,861 - Didn't you hear a word I said before? - Oh, never mind about that. 2239 02:21:22,936 --> 02:21:26,703 - Here's what I want you to do. - John, I'm not even speaking to you. 2240 02:21:26,774 --> 02:21:29,572 It's too late for that, damn it. There's work to be done. 2241 02:21:29,644 --> 02:21:31,578 Jefferson, go find Rutledge. 2242 02:21:31,646 --> 02:21:33,581 Don't come back until you've worn him down. 2243 02:21:33,649 --> 02:21:35,618 Now, you're both southern aristocrats. 2244 02:21:35,685 --> 02:21:37,846 If he'll listen to anybody, he'll listen to you. 2245 02:21:37,921 --> 02:21:39,855 Franklin, out of that chair! 2246 02:21:39,923 --> 02:21:42,552 What good is the South if you can't deliver Pennsylvania? 2247 02:21:42,626 --> 02:21:45,493 Talk to Wilson. Get him away from Dickinson. 2248 02:21:45,563 --> 02:21:49,091 That's the only way to do it. Go on, now, both of you. 2249 02:21:49,167 --> 02:21:52,399 - John? - Time's running out, damn it. 2250 02:21:52,471 --> 02:21:54,598 Now move. 2251 02:21:56,776 --> 02:22:00,110 I'm still from Massachusetts, John. 2252 02:22:00,180 --> 02:22:04,277 You know where I stand. I'll do whatever you say. 2253 02:22:10,225 --> 02:22:14,185 No. You're the president of Congress. 2254 02:22:14,264 --> 02:22:16,789 You're a fair man, Hancock. Stay that way. 2255 02:22:38,927 --> 02:22:43,159 Tell me, Mr. Thomson, out of curiosity... 2256 02:22:43,231 --> 02:22:46,964 do you stand with Mr. Dickinson, or do you stand with me? 2257 02:22:48,772 --> 02:22:50,706 I stand with the general. 2258 02:22:52,676 --> 02:22:57,011 Well, lately, I've had the oddest feeling that he's been... 2259 02:22:57,081 --> 02:23:00,176 writing to me. 2260 02:23:02,422 --> 02:23:05,687 I have been in expectation 2261 02:23:05,759 --> 02:23:08,991 Of receiving a reply 2262 02:23:09,063 --> 02:23:16,300 On the subject of my last 15 dispatches 2263 02:23:16,371 --> 02:23:22,743 Is anybody there 2264 02:23:22,812 --> 02:23:28,377 Does anybody care 2265 02:23:29,587 --> 02:23:35,424 Does anybody care 2266 02:23:37,163 --> 02:23:40,064 "Your humble and obedient..." 2267 02:24:12,773 --> 02:24:15,105 "Is anybody there? 2268 02:24:18,112 --> 02:24:20,877 Does anybody care?" 2269 02:24:24,120 --> 02:24:30,617 Does anybody see what I see 2270 02:24:34,264 --> 02:24:36,790 They want me to quit 2271 02:24:37,668 --> 02:24:42,129 They say John, give up the fight 2272 02:24:42,207 --> 02:24:45,109 Still to England, I say 2273 02:24:45,178 --> 02:24:49,672 Good night forever Good night 2274 02:24:49,749 --> 02:24:54,415 For I have crossed the Rubicon 2275 02:24:54,489 --> 02:24:57,424 Let the bridge be burned behind me 2276 02:24:57,492 --> 02:24:59,687 Come what may 2277 02:24:59,761 --> 02:25:02,959 Come what may Commitment 2278 02:25:03,032 --> 02:25:07,493 The croakers all say we'll rue the day 2279 02:25:07,571 --> 02:25:13,010 There'll be hell to pay in fiery purgatory 2280 02:25:13,077 --> 02:25:16,741 Through all the gloom Through all the gloom 2281 02:25:16,816 --> 02:25:20,878 I can see the rays of ravishing light 2282 02:25:20,954 --> 02:25:23,320 And glory 2283 02:25:23,390 --> 02:25:26,883 Is anybody there? 2284 02:25:26,961 --> 02:25:30,055 Does anybody care? 2285 02:25:30,131 --> 02:25:34,125 Does anybody see what I see? 2286 02:25:34,203 --> 02:25:36,832 I see fireworks 2287 02:25:36,906 --> 02:25:40,308 I see the pageant and pomp and parade 2288 02:25:40,377 --> 02:25:42,937 I hear the bells ringing out 2289 02:25:43,013 --> 02:25:45,948 I hear the cannons roar 2290 02:25:46,016 --> 02:25:48,543 I see Americans 2291 02:25:48,621 --> 02:25:52,250 All Americans free 2292 02:25:52,325 --> 02:25:55,557 Forevermore 2293 02:26:08,244 --> 02:26:13,774 How quiet How quiet the chamber is 2294 02:26:15,218 --> 02:26:22,058 How silent How silent the chamber is 2295 02:26:25,731 --> 02:26:31,103 Is anybody there 2296 02:26:32,506 --> 02:26:37,706 Does anybody care 2297 02:26:39,681 --> 02:26:42,650 Does anybody see... 2298 02:26:42,717 --> 02:26:44,812 what I see? 2299 02:26:46,823 --> 02:26:48,757 Yes, Mr. Adams. 2300 02:26:50,227 --> 02:26:51,388 I do. 2301 02:26:54,899 --> 02:26:57,060 Dr. Hall. 2302 02:26:57,135 --> 02:26:59,503 I didn't know anyone was... 2303 02:27:00,507 --> 02:27:03,305 I'm sorry if I startled you. 2304 02:27:03,376 --> 02:27:05,901 I couldn't sleep. 2305 02:27:05,979 --> 02:27:09,575 And in trying to resolve my dilemma... 2306 02:27:09,650 --> 02:27:12,483 I remembered something I'd once read. 2307 02:27:12,553 --> 02:27:16,457 "That a representative owes the people not only his industry... 2308 02:27:16,526 --> 02:27:18,858 "but his judgment... 2309 02:27:18,928 --> 02:27:22,625 and he betrays them if he sacrifices it to their opinion." 2310 02:27:25,636 --> 02:27:28,868 That was written by Edmund Burke... 2311 02:27:29,674 --> 02:27:31,836 a member of the British Parliament. 2312 02:28:01,112 --> 02:28:03,138 Good night, Mr. Adams. 2313 02:28:03,215 --> 02:28:05,149 Good night. 2314 02:28:15,362 --> 02:28:17,296 It's never been done before. 2315 02:28:17,364 --> 02:28:20,129 No colony has ever broken from the parent stem in the history of the world. 2316 02:28:20,201 --> 02:28:22,635 If you have grievances, and I'm sure you have... 2317 02:28:22,704 --> 02:28:25,731 our present system must provide a gentler means of redressing them... 2318 02:28:25,808 --> 02:28:28,039 - We've spawned a new race here. - Revolution? 2319 02:28:28,111 --> 02:28:32,070 Rougher, simpler, more violent, more enterprising, less refined. 2320 02:28:32,149 --> 02:28:35,677 ''My quartermaster has no food, no arms, no ammunition... 2321 02:28:35,753 --> 02:28:38,484 and my troops are in a state of near mutiny. 2322 02:28:38,557 --> 02:28:42,824 I pray God some relief arrives before the armada, but fear it will not. " 2323 02:28:42,896 --> 02:28:45,797 And when they hang you, Mr. Adams... 2324 02:28:45,865 --> 02:28:48,390 I do hope you'll put in a good word for the rest of us. 2325 02:28:48,468 --> 02:28:52,372 England closing in, cutting off our air. There's no time! 2326 02:28:52,441 --> 02:28:56,104 Place before mankind the common sense of the subjects. 2327 02:28:56,178 --> 02:28:58,113 The issue here is independence. 2328 02:28:58,181 --> 02:29:00,115 Perhaps you've lost sight of that fact, but I have not. 2329 02:29:00,183 --> 02:29:02,117 ''We mutually pledge to each other our lives... 2330 02:29:02,185 --> 02:29:05,416 our fortunes and our sacred honor. " 2331 02:29:05,488 --> 02:29:09,449 Can you really know so little about yourself? 2332 02:29:13,866 --> 02:29:15,891 Very well. 2333 02:29:17,103 --> 02:29:20,562 The Congress will now vote on Virginia's resolution on independence. 2334 02:29:29,217 --> 02:29:32,949 Thank you for coming, Caesar, and God bless you, sir. 2335 02:29:38,696 --> 02:29:40,994 The secretary will call the roll. 2336 02:29:41,065 --> 02:29:44,159 And I remind you, gentlemen... 2337 02:29:44,235 --> 02:29:47,467 that a single "nay" vote... 2338 02:29:47,539 --> 02:29:49,474 will defeat the motion. 2339 02:29:50,810 --> 02:29:52,744 Mr. Thomson. 2340 02:29:57,151 --> 02:30:00,211 - New Hampshire. - New Hampshire says yea. 2341 02:30:00,287 --> 02:30:02,723 New Hampshire says yea. Massachusetts. 2342 02:30:02,791 --> 02:30:05,783 - Massachusetts says yea. - Massachusetts says yea. 2343 02:30:05,861 --> 02:30:08,022 - Rhode Island. - Rhode Island says yea. 2344 02:30:08,097 --> 02:30:10,362 Rhode Island says yea. Connecticut. 2345 02:30:10,433 --> 02:30:13,197 - Connecticut says yea. - Connecticut says yea. 2346 02:30:13,270 --> 02:30:14,794 New York. 2347 02:30:14,871 --> 02:30:18,104 Mr. Secretary, New York abstains courteously. 2348 02:30:18,177 --> 02:30:21,840 - New York abstains. - Courteously. 2349 02:30:21,914 --> 02:30:24,906 - New Jersey. - New Jersey says yea. 2350 02:30:24,983 --> 02:30:27,544 New Jersey says yea. Pennsylvania. 2351 02:30:29,656 --> 02:30:33,924 Mr. Secretary, Pennsylvania is not ready. Please come back to us later. 2352 02:30:33,995 --> 02:30:37,487 Pennsylvania passes. Delaware. 2353 02:30:38,633 --> 02:30:42,468 Delaware, by majority vote... 2354 02:30:42,538 --> 02:30:45,030 - Aye. - Says yea. 2355 02:30:45,108 --> 02:30:48,236 Delaware says yea. Maryland. 2356 02:30:48,312 --> 02:30:50,406 - Maryland says yea. - Maryland says yea. 2357 02:30:50,481 --> 02:30:52,415 - Virginia. - Virginia says yea. 2358 02:30:52,483 --> 02:30:54,542 Virginia says yea. North Carolina. 2359 02:30:54,619 --> 02:30:58,249 North Carolina yields to South Carolina. 2360 02:30:58,324 --> 02:31:00,316 South Carolina. 2361 02:31:00,393 --> 02:31:02,190 Well, Mr. Adams? 2362 02:31:03,296 --> 02:31:04,593 Well, Mr. Rutledge? 2363 02:31:07,802 --> 02:31:11,329 Mr. Adams... 2364 02:31:11,405 --> 02:31:15,468 you must believe that I will do what I promised to do. 2365 02:31:22,152 --> 02:31:23,744 What is it you want? 2366 02:31:23,821 --> 02:31:27,588 Remove the offending passage from your declaration. 2367 02:31:27,659 --> 02:31:33,155 If we did that, we would be guilty of what we ourselves are rebelling against. 2368 02:31:35,167 --> 02:31:37,830 Nevertheless, remove it... 2369 02:31:37,904 --> 02:31:41,102 or South Carolina will bury now and forever... 2370 02:31:41,175 --> 02:31:44,269 your dream of independence. 2371 02:31:44,345 --> 02:31:47,611 John, I beg you, consider what you're doing. 2372 02:31:54,658 --> 02:31:57,355 Mark me, Franklin... 2373 02:31:57,428 --> 02:32:02,662 if we give in on this issue, posterity will never forgive us. 2374 02:32:02,734 --> 02:32:06,898 That's probably true, but we won't hear a thing. We'll be long gone. 2375 02:32:06,972 --> 02:32:11,673 Besides, what will posterity think we were? Demigods? 2376 02:32:11,745 --> 02:32:14,908 We're men... no more, no less... trying to get a nation started... 2377 02:32:14,982 --> 02:32:20,080 against greater odds than a more generous God would have allowed. 2378 02:32:20,155 --> 02:32:23,421 First things first, John. Independence. America. 2379 02:32:23,492 --> 02:32:28,260 If we don't secure that, what difference will the rest make? 2380 02:32:34,572 --> 02:32:36,540 Jefferson, say something. 2381 02:32:38,777 --> 02:32:42,043 What else is there to do? 2382 02:32:42,115 --> 02:32:45,607 Well, man, you're the one that wrote it. 2383 02:32:45,685 --> 02:32:49,383 I wrote all of it, Mr. Adams. 2384 02:33:09,848 --> 02:33:11,816 There. There it is, Rutledge. 2385 02:33:11,884 --> 02:33:14,250 You have your slavery. Little good may it do you. 2386 02:33:14,320 --> 02:33:17,619 Now vote, damn you! 2387 02:33:17,690 --> 02:33:22,652 Mr. President, the fair colony of South Carolina... 2388 02:33:22,730 --> 02:33:25,927 - says yea. - South Carolina says yea. 2389 02:33:26,000 --> 02:33:29,368 - North Carolina says yea. - North Carolina says yea. 2390 02:33:31,306 --> 02:33:33,468 - Georgia. - Georgia says yea. 2391 02:33:33,543 --> 02:33:36,308 Georgia says yea. 2392 02:33:36,380 --> 02:33:38,314 Pennsylvania, second call. 2393 02:33:40,418 --> 02:33:45,379 Mr. President, Pennsylvania regrets all of the inconvenience... 2394 02:33:45,457 --> 02:33:50,657 that such distinguished men as Adams, Franklin and Jefferson... 2395 02:33:50,730 --> 02:33:52,665 were put to just now. 2396 02:33:52,733 --> 02:33:57,170 They might've kept their document intact for all the difference it will make. 2397 02:33:57,237 --> 02:34:00,571 Mr. President, Pennsylvania says... 2398 02:34:00,642 --> 02:34:03,373 Just a moment. 2399 02:34:03,446 --> 02:34:05,437 I ask the delegation to be polled. 2400 02:34:05,514 --> 02:34:08,245 Dr. Franklin, don't be absurd. 2401 02:34:08,318 --> 02:34:11,845 A poll, Mr. President. It's a proper request. 2402 02:34:11,922 --> 02:34:15,552 Yes, it is. Poll the delegation, Mr. Thomson. 2403 02:34:15,626 --> 02:34:18,494 - Dr. Benjamin Franklin. - Yea. 2404 02:34:18,564 --> 02:34:22,000 - Mr. John Dickinson. - Nay. 2405 02:34:22,067 --> 02:34:24,161 Mr. James Wilson. 2406 02:34:26,339 --> 02:34:28,569 Judge Wilson? 2407 02:34:31,446 --> 02:34:34,074 There it is, Mr. Wilson. It's all up to you now. 2408 02:34:34,149 --> 02:34:38,415 The question of American independence rests squarely on your shoulders. 2409 02:34:38,487 --> 02:34:42,219 An entirely new nation ready to be born or to die at birth... 2410 02:34:42,291 --> 02:34:44,988 all on your say-so. 2411 02:34:45,062 --> 02:34:47,554 Which will it be, Mr. Wilson? 2412 02:34:47,632 --> 02:34:51,864 Every mapmaker in the world is waiting for your decision. 2413 02:34:51,936 --> 02:34:55,031 Oh, come now, James. Nothing has changed. 2414 02:34:55,107 --> 02:34:57,803 We mustn't let Dr. Franklin create one of his confusions. 2415 02:34:57,877 --> 02:35:00,278 The question is clear. 2416 02:35:00,347 --> 02:35:03,749 Most questions are clear when someone else has to decide them. 2417 02:35:03,818 --> 02:35:08,084 It'd be a pity for a man who's handed down hundreds of wise decisions... 2418 02:35:08,155 --> 02:35:10,089 from the bench... 2419 02:35:10,157 --> 02:35:15,028 to be remembered only for the one unwise decision he made in Congress. 2420 02:35:16,666 --> 02:35:19,465 James, you're keeping everybody waiting. 2421 02:35:19,537 --> 02:35:21,562 The secretary has called for your vote. 2422 02:35:22,506 --> 02:35:25,031 Please. 2423 02:35:25,109 --> 02:35:29,309 Don't push me, John. I know what you want me to do. 2424 02:35:31,417 --> 02:35:34,979 But Mr. Adams is correct about one thing. 2425 02:35:36,790 --> 02:35:39,452 I'm the one who'll be remembered for it. 2426 02:35:39,526 --> 02:35:41,995 What do you mean? 2427 02:35:46,535 --> 02:35:49,800 I'm different from you, John. 2428 02:35:49,872 --> 02:35:53,240 I'm different from most of the men here. 2429 02:35:53,310 --> 02:35:56,769 I don't want to be remembered. 2430 02:35:56,847 --> 02:35:59,476 I just don't want the... 2431 02:35:59,551 --> 02:36:01,485 responsibility. 2432 02:36:02,220 --> 02:36:04,916 Yes, well, whether you want it or not, James... 2433 02:36:04,990 --> 02:36:07,050 there's no way of avoiding it. 2434 02:36:07,126 --> 02:36:09,618 Not necessarily, John. 2435 02:36:09,697 --> 02:36:15,568 If I go with them, I'll just be one among dozens. 2436 02:36:15,637 --> 02:36:18,868 No one will ever remember the name ofJames Wilson. 2437 02:36:20,442 --> 02:36:23,880 But if I vote with you... 2438 02:36:23,947 --> 02:36:27,474 I'll be the man who prevented American independence. 2439 02:36:29,987 --> 02:36:33,048 I'm sorry, John. 2440 02:36:33,124 --> 02:36:36,856 I just didn't bargain for that. 2441 02:36:36,929 --> 02:36:41,867 And is that how new nations are formed? 2442 02:36:41,935 --> 02:36:44,301 By a nonentity trying to preserve... 2443 02:36:44,371 --> 02:36:48,638 the anonymity he so richly deserves? 2444 02:36:48,709 --> 02:36:52,043 Revolutions come into this world like bastard children, Mr. Dickinson. 2445 02:36:52,114 --> 02:36:54,845 Half improvised and half compromised. 2446 02:36:54,917 --> 02:36:57,181 Our side has provided the compromise. 2447 02:36:57,253 --> 02:36:59,778 Now Judge Wilson is supplying the rest. 2448 02:37:04,161 --> 02:37:06,323 James. 2449 02:37:06,398 --> 02:37:09,458 I'm sorry, John. 2450 02:37:09,534 --> 02:37:13,164 My vote is yea. 2451 02:37:13,572 --> 02:37:15,938 Mr. Secretary, Pennsylvania says yea. 2452 02:37:18,412 --> 02:37:24,181 The count, being twelve to none... 2453 02:37:24,252 --> 02:37:25,719 with one abstention... 2454 02:37:25,787 --> 02:37:30,225 the resolution on independence... 2455 02:37:30,292 --> 02:37:32,556 is adopted. 2456 02:37:32,628 --> 02:37:34,621 It's done. 2457 02:37:38,002 --> 02:37:39,936 It's done. 2458 02:37:41,740 --> 02:37:45,699 Mr. Thomson, is the declaration ready to be signed? 2459 02:37:45,777 --> 02:37:50,273 - It is. - Then I suggest we do so. 2460 02:37:51,318 --> 02:37:57,450 And the chair further proposes, for our mutual security and protection... 2461 02:37:57,524 --> 02:38:02,054 that no man sit in this Congress without attaching his name to it. 2462 02:38:05,034 --> 02:38:09,301 I'm sorry, Mr. President. 2463 02:38:09,372 --> 02:38:15,073 I cannot, in good conscience, sign such a document. 2464 02:38:15,146 --> 02:38:19,982 I will never stop hoping for our eventual reconciliation with England. 2465 02:38:21,353 --> 02:38:24,551 But because... 2466 02:38:24,624 --> 02:38:27,092 in my own way... 2467 02:38:27,160 --> 02:38:31,098 I regard America no less than does Mr. Adams... 2468 02:38:32,734 --> 02:38:38,071 I will join the army and fight in her defense... 2469 02:38:38,141 --> 02:38:41,440 even though I believe that fight to be hopeless. 2470 02:38:46,918 --> 02:38:48,909 Good-bye, gentlemen. 2471 02:38:50,688 --> 02:38:52,986 Gentlemen of the Congress... 2472 02:38:53,057 --> 02:38:55,618 I say yea, John Dickinson. 2473 02:39:07,008 --> 02:39:09,204 Very well. 2474 02:39:09,278 --> 02:39:12,806 Are there objections to the declaration being approved as it now stands? 2475 02:39:12,882 --> 02:39:16,841 - I have one, Mr. Hancock. - You, Mr. Adams? 2476 02:39:16,921 --> 02:39:20,049 Yes. Mr. Jefferson... 2477 02:39:20,124 --> 02:39:23,992 it so happens that the word is "unalienable," 2478 02:39:24,061 --> 02:39:25,997 not "inalienable." 2479 02:39:27,567 --> 02:39:31,867 I'm sorry, Mr. Adams, but "inalienable" is correct. 2480 02:39:33,307 --> 02:39:36,174 I happen to be a Harvard graduate, Mr. Jefferson. 2481 02:39:39,513 --> 02:39:43,645 I attended William and Mary, Mr. Adams. 2482 02:39:43,719 --> 02:39:49,158 Gentlemen, please! Mr. Jefferson, will you yield to Mr. Adams's request? 2483 02:39:50,994 --> 02:39:53,189 No, sir, I will not. 2484 02:39:59,471 --> 02:40:01,735 Oh, very well. I withdraw it. 2485 02:40:01,807 --> 02:40:05,175 Oh, good for you, John. 2486 02:40:08,482 --> 02:40:11,042 I'll speak to the printer about it later on. 2487 02:40:13,755 --> 02:40:15,985 Very well, gentlemen. 2488 02:40:16,057 --> 02:40:20,825 We're about to brave the storm in a skiff made of paper. 2489 02:40:20,897 --> 02:40:24,925 And how it shall end, God only knows. 2490 02:40:26,703 --> 02:40:28,797 That's a pretty large signature, Johnny. 2491 02:40:28,873 --> 02:40:32,274 So Fat George in London can read it without his glasses. 2492 02:40:34,512 --> 02:40:38,974 Step right up, gentlemen. Don't miss your chance to commit treason. 2493 02:40:40,420 --> 02:40:44,687 Hancock is right. This paper is our passport to the gallows. 2494 02:40:44,759 --> 02:40:47,284 But there's no backing out now, for if we do not hang together... 2495 02:40:47,361 --> 02:40:50,798 we shall most assuredly hang separately. 2496 02:40:52,435 --> 02:40:54,995 In my case, hangin' won't be so bad. 2497 02:40:55,071 --> 02:40:58,234 One snap and it'll be all over, just like that. 2498 02:40:58,308 --> 02:41:03,042 But look at Read there. He'll be dancin' a jig long after I'm gone! 2499 02:41:04,482 --> 02:41:07,883 Gentlemen, forgive me if I don't join in the merriment... 2500 02:41:07,953 --> 02:41:09,922 but if we are arrested now... 2501 02:41:09,989 --> 02:41:14,585 my name is still the only one on the damn thing! 2502 02:41:33,784 --> 02:41:38,244 From the commander, army of the United Colonies in... 2503 02:41:38,322 --> 02:41:42,225 army of the United States in New York... 2504 02:41:42,294 --> 02:41:44,285 dispatch number 1,209... 2505 02:41:44,363 --> 02:41:47,561 to the Honorable Congress, John Hancock, President. "Dear sir... 2506 02:41:47,633 --> 02:41:49,602 I can now report with some certainty... 2507 02:41:49,670 --> 02:41:51,604 that the eve of battle is near at hand. 2508 02:41:51,672 --> 02:41:56,508 Toward this end, I have ordered the evacuation of Manhattan... 2509 02:41:56,578 --> 02:42:01,016 and directed our defenses to take up stronger positions on Brooklyn Heights. 2510 02:42:01,083 --> 02:42:06,522 At the present time, my forces consist entirely of Haslet's Delaware Militia... 2511 02:42:06,590 --> 02:42:08,524 and Smallwood's Marylanders... 2512 02:42:08,592 --> 02:42:12,552 a total of 5,000 troops to stand against... 2513 02:42:14,599 --> 02:42:17,501 25,000 of the enemy. 2514 02:42:17,569 --> 02:42:19,800 And I begin to notice that many of us... 2515 02:42:19,873 --> 02:42:23,900 are lads under 15 and old men... 2516 02:42:23,977 --> 02:42:28,347 none of whom could truly be called soldiers. 2517 02:42:28,416 --> 02:42:32,217 One personal note to Mr. Lewis Morris of New York. 2518 02:42:32,287 --> 02:42:36,725 I must regretfully report that his estates have been totally destroyed... 2519 02:42:36,793 --> 02:42:39,887 but that I have taken the liberty of transporting Mrs. Morris... 2520 02:42:39,962 --> 02:42:43,491 and eight of the children to Connecticut and safety. 2521 02:42:43,568 --> 02:42:48,596 The four older boys are now enlisted in the Continental Army. 2522 02:42:48,673 --> 02:42:51,073 As I write these words... 2523 02:42:51,142 --> 02:42:55,580 the enemy is plainly in sight beyond the river. 2524 02:42:55,648 --> 02:42:59,552 How it will end, only Providence can direct. 2525 02:42:59,620 --> 02:43:02,714 But dear God, what brave men... 2526 02:43:06,194 --> 02:43:10,291 I shall lose... 2527 02:43:10,365 --> 02:43:12,800 before... 2528 02:43:12,869 --> 02:43:14,803 this business... 2529 02:43:16,774 --> 02:43:18,833 ends. 2530 02:43:21,745 --> 02:43:23,771 Your obedient... 2531 02:43:27,186 --> 02:43:30,485 G. Washington." 2532 02:43:54,318 --> 02:43:56,253 Very well, gentlemen. 2533 02:43:57,422 --> 02:43:59,481 McNair. 2534 02:44:02,829 --> 02:44:04,888 Go ring the bell. 2535 02:44:11,673 --> 02:44:15,074 - Mr. President. - Mr. Morris. 2536 02:44:15,143 --> 02:44:18,978 To hell with New York. I'll sign it anyway. 2537 02:44:19,048 --> 02:44:21,175 Thank you, Mr. Morris. 2538 02:44:27,625 --> 02:44:29,923 Stephen, sit down. 2539 02:44:32,597 --> 02:44:37,263 I want to remember each man's face as he signs. 2540 02:44:38,104 --> 02:44:39,799 Very well. 2541 02:44:41,174 --> 02:44:43,268 Mr. Thomson. 2542 02:44:45,813 --> 02:44:49,772 New Hampshire. Dr. Josiah Bartlett. 2543 02:44:59,230 --> 02:45:02,859 Massachusetts. Mr. John Adams. 2544 02:45:22,424 --> 02:45:25,257 Rhode Island. Mr. Stephen Hopkins. 2545 02:45:32,403 --> 02:45:35,372 Connecticut. Mr. Roger Sherman. 2546 02:45:41,880 --> 02:45:45,043 New York. Mr. Lewis Morris. 2547 02:45:51,759 --> 02:45:55,059 New Jersey. The Reverend John Witherspoon. 2548 02:46:01,504 --> 02:46:05,737 Pennsylvania. Dr. Benjamin Franklin. 2549 02:46:11,382 --> 02:46:14,819 Delaware. Mr. Caesar Rodney. 2550 02:46:25,231 --> 02:46:27,757 Maryland. Mr. Samuel Chase. 2551 02:46:38,915 --> 02:46:41,783 Virginia. Mr. Thomas Jefferson. 2552 02:46:49,027 --> 02:46:51,724 North Carolina. Mr. Joseph Hewes. 2553 02:46:57,538 --> 02:47:00,132 South Carolina. Mr. Edward Rutledge. 2554 02:47:06,615 --> 02:47:10,142 Georgia. Dr. Lyman Hall. 205216

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